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What happened in October. Historical events that happened on every day

October 1-4

October 1

331 BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.

366 – Pope Damasus I is elected.

959 – Edgar the Peaceful becomes king of all England.

965 – Pope John XIII is elected.

1553 – Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.

1588 – Coronation of Shah Abbas I of Persia.

1730 – Ahmed III is forced to abdicate as the Ottoman sultan.

1787 – Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.

1791 – First session of the French Legislative Assembly.

1795 – More than a year after the Battle of Sprimont, the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) are officially annexed by Revolutionary France.

1800 – Via the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain cedes Louisiana to France, which would sell the land to the United States thirty months later.

1814 – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoleon the previous spring.

1827 – Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia.

1829 – South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa. It will later separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.

1832 – Texian political delegates convene at San Felipe de Austin to petition for changes in the governance of Mexican Texas.

1843 – The News of the World tabloid begins publication in London, UK.

1861 – Mrs Beeton’s Book of Household Management is published, going on to sell 60,000 copies in its first year and remaining in print until the present day

1887 – Balochistan is conquered by the British Empire.

1890 – Yosemite National Park is established by the U.S. Congress.

1891 – Stanford University opens its doors in California, United States.

1898 – The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.

1903 – Baseball: The Boston Americans play the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of the modern World Series.

1908 – Ford Model T automobiles are offered for sale at a price of US$825.

1910 – A large bomb destroys the Los Angeles Times building, killing 21.

1918 – World War I: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force captures Damascus.

1918 – Sayid Abdullah becomes the last Khan of Khiva.

1928 – The Soviet Union introduces its first five-year plan.

1931 – The George Washington Bridge in the United States, linking New Jersey and New York, is opened.

1931 – Clara Campoamor persuades the Constituent Cortes to enfranchise women in Spain’s new constitution.

1936 – Francisco Franco is named head of the Nationalist government of Spain.

1938 – Germany annexes the Sudetenland.

1939 – World War II: After a one-month siege, German troops occupy Warsaw.

1940 – The Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opens to traffic.

1942 – World War II: USS Grouper torpedoes Lisbon Maru, not knowing that she is carrying British prisoners of war from Hong Kong.

1943 – World War II: After the Four Days of Naples, Allied troops enter the city.

1946 – Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials.

1946 – The Daegu October Incident occurs in Allied-occupied Korea.

1947 – The North American F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.

1949 – The People’s Republic of China is established.

1953 – Andhra State is formed, consisting of a Telugu-speaking area carved out of India’s Madras State.

1953 – A Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea is concluded in Washington, D.C.

1955 – The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is established.

1957 – First appearance of In God we trust on U.S. paper currency.

1958 – The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is replaced by NASA.

1960 – Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1961 – The United States Defense Intelligence Agency is formed, becoming the country’s first centralized military intelligence organization.

1961 – East and West Cameroon merge to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.

1964 – The Free Speech Movement is launched on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

1964 – Japanese Shinkansen (“bullet trains”) begin high-speed rail service from Tokyo to Osaka.

1966 – West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with no survivors in Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.

1968 – Guyana nationalizes the British Guiana Broadcasting Service, which would eventually become part of the National Communications Network, Guyana.

1969 – Concorde breaks the sound barrier for the first time.

1971 – Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida.

1971 – The first practical CT scanner is used to diagnose a patient.

1975 – Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila, Philippines.

1978 – Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1979 – Pope John Paul II begins his first pastoral visit to the United States.

1979 – The MTR, the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong, opens.

1982 – Helmut Kohl replaces Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of Germany through a constructive vote of no confidence.

1982 – Epcot opens at Walt Disney World in Florida.

1982 – Sony and Phillips launch the compact disc in Japan. On the same day, Sony released the model CDP-101 compact disc player, the first player of its kind.

1985 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Israel attacks the Palestine Liberation Organization headquarters in Tunisia during “Operation Wooden Leg”.

1987 – The 5.9 Mw  Whittier Narrows earthquake shakes the San Gabriel Valley with a Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), killing eight and injuring 200.

1989 – Denmark introduces the world’s first legal same-sex registered partnerships.

1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Siege of Dubrovnik begins.

1994 – Palau enters a Compact of Free Association with the United States.

2000 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Palestinians protest the murder of 12-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah by the Israeli police in northern Israel, beginning the “October 2000 events”.

2001 – Militants attack the state legislature building in Kashmir, killing 38.

2009 – The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom takes over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.

2012 – A ferry collision off the coast of Hong Kong kills 38 people and injures 102 others.

2014 – A series of explosions at a gunpowder plant in Bulgaria completely destroys the factory, killing 15 people.

2015 – A gunman kills nine people at a community college in Oregon.

2015 – Heavy rains trigger a major landslide in Guatemala, killing 280 people.

2017 – An independence referendum, declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of Spain, takes place in Catalonia.

2017 – Fifty-eight people are killed and 851 others injured in a mass shooting at a country music festival at the Las Vegas Strip in the United States; the gunman, Stephen Paddock, later commits suicide.

October 2

829 – Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor.

939 – Battle of Andernach: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes.

1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.

1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.

1470 – The Earl of Warwick’s rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.

1528 – William Tyndale publishes The Obedience of a Christian Man, which advocates the divine right of kings.

1535 – Jacques Cartier discovers the present site of Montreal.

1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: Russian troops enter Kazan.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: John André, a British Army officer, is hanged as a spy by the Continental Army.

1789 – The United States Bill of Rights is sent to the various States for ratification.

1814 – Chilean War of Independence: Royalist troops defeat Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.

1835 – Texas Revolution: Mexican troops attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.

1864 – American Civil War: Confederates defeat a Union attack on Saltville, Virginia. A massacre of wounded Union prisoners (most of them are from a Black cavalry unit) ensues.

1870 – A plebiscite held in Rome, supports annexation of city of Rome by the Kingdom of Italy.

1919 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him incapacitated for several weeks.

1928 – The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded.

1937 – Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of Haitians living in the northwestern region of the Dominican Republic.

1941 – World War II: In Operation Typhoon, the Wehrmacht attempts to capture Moscow before the onset of winter.

1942 – World War II: Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks HMS Curacoa, killing 337 crewmen aboard Curacoa.

1944 – World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.

1958 – Guinea declares its independence from France.

1959 – Rod Serling’s anthology series The Twilight Zone premieres on CBS. The first episode is “Where Is Everybody?”

1967 – Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first African-American justice of the United States Supreme Court.

1968 – Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz orders soldiers to suppress a demonstration of unarmed students, ten days before the start of the 1968 Summer Olympics.

1970 – An aircraft carrying the Wichita State University football team, administrators, and supporters crashes in Colorado, killing 31 people.

1980 – Michael Myers becomes the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the Civil War.

1990 – Xiamen Airlines Flight 8301 is hijacked and lands at Guangzhou, where it crashes into two other airliners on the ground, killing 128.

1992 – Military police storm the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil during a prison riot. The resulting massacre leaves 105 prisoners dead.

1996 – Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the ocean near Peru, killing all 70 people on board.

1996 – The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments are signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton.

2000 – The Rijndael algorithm is chosen by NIST as the AES standard.

2002 – The Beltway sniper attacks begin, extending over three weeks.

2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK.

2006 – Five Amish girls are murdered in a shooting at a school in Pennsylvania, United States.

2007 – President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea goes to North Korea for an Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

2016 – Ethiopian protests break out during a festival in the Oromia region, killing dozens of people.

October 3

2457 BC – Gaecheonjeol, Hwanung purportedly descended from heaven. South Korea’s National Foundation Day.

52 BC – Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and battle of Alesia.

42 BC – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius.

382 – Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans.

1283 – Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.

1392 – Muhammed VII becomes the twelfth sultan of the Emirate of Granada.

1574 – The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.

1683 – Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang receives the surrender of the Tungning kingdom on Taiwan after the Battle of Penghu.

1712 – The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.

1739 – The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War.

1789 – George Washington proclaims a Thanksgiving Day for that year.

1795 – Slave rebel leader Tula is executed in Curaçao.

1863 – The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.

1873 – Chief Kintpuash and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War of northern California.

1912 – U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1918 – King Boris III of Bulgaria accedes to the throne.

1919 – Cincinnati Reds pitcher Adolfo Luque becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series.

1929 – The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Yugoslavia by King Alexander I.

1930 – The German Socialist Labour Party in Poland – Left is founded.

1932 – Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1935 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia.

1942 – A German V-2 rocket reaches a record 85 km (46 nm) in altitude.

1943 – World War II: German forces murder 92 civilians in Lyngiades, Greece.

1949 – WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta.

1951 – Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San pits Commonwealth troops against communist Chinese troops.

1952 – The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world’s third nuclear power.

1957 – The California State Superior Court rules that the book Howl and Other Poems is not obscene.

1962 – Project Mercury: Wally Schirra in Sigma 7 launched from Cape Canaveral for a six-orbit flight.

1963 – A violent coup in Honduras begins two decades of military rule.

1978 – A Finnish Air Force DC-3 crashes, killing all 15 people on board.

1981 – The hunger strike at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths.

1985 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight.

1986 – TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories in Canada, is officially opened.

1989 – A coup in Panama City is suppressed and 11 participants are executed.

1990 – The German Democratic Republic is abolished and becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

1991 – Nadine Gordimer is announced as the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1993 – An American attack against a warlord in Mogadishu fails; eighteen US soldiers and over 350 Somalis die.

1995 – The O. J. Simpson murder case ended with a verdict of not guilty.

2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush.

2009 – Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey join together in the Turkic Council.

2010 – The 19th Commonwealth Games commence in Delhi.

2013 – At least 360 migrants are killed when their boat sinks near the Italian island of Lampedusa.

2015 – Forty-two are killed and 33 go missing in the Kunduz hospital airstrike.

October 4

AD 23 – Rebels sack the Chinese capital Chang’an during a peasant rebellion.

1302 – The Byzantine–Venetian War comes to an end.

1363 – Battle of Lake Poyang: In one of the largest naval battles in history, Zhu Yuanzhang’s rebels defeat rival Chen Youliang.

1511 – Formation of the Holy League of Aragon, the Papal States and Venice against France.

1535 – The Coverdale Bible is printed, with translations into English by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale.

1582 – The Gregorian Calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII.

1597 – Governor Gonzalo Méndez de Canço begins to suppress a native uprising against his rule in what is now Georgia.

1636 – Thirty Years’ War: The Swedish Army defeats the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock.

1693 – Nine Years’ War: Piedmontese troops are defeated by the French.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under William Howe.

1795 – Napoleon first rises to prominence by suppressing counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the National Convention.

1824 – Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.

1830 – The Belgian Revolution takes legal form when the provisional government secedes from the Netherlands.

1853 – The Crimean War begins when the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Russian Empire.

1876 – The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opens as the first public college in Texas.

1883 – First run of the Orient Express.

1883 – First meeting of the Boys’ Brigade in Glasgow, Scotland.

1895 – Horace Rawlins wins the first U.S. Open Men’s Golf Championship.

1904 – The IFK Göteborg football club is founded in Sweden.

1917 – World War I: The Battle of Broodseinde is fought between the British and German armies in Flanders.

1918 – World War I: An explosion kills more than 100 people and destroys a Shell Loading Plant in New Jersey.

1927 – Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore.

1936 – The British Union of Fascists and various anti-fascist organizations violently clash in the Battle of Cable Street.

1941 – Norman Rockwell’s Willie Gillis character debuts on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post.

1957 – Sputnik 1 becomes the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.

1958 – The current constitution of France is adopted.

1960 – An airliner crashes on takeoff from Boston’s Logan International Airport, killing 62 people.

1963 – Hurricane Flora kills 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti.

1965 – Pope Paul VI begins the first papal visit to the Americas.

1966 – Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and is renamed Lesotho.

1967 – Omar Ali Saifuddien III of Brunei abdicates in favour of his son.

1983 – Richard Noble sets a new land speed record of 633.468 miles per hour (1,019.468 km/h) at the Black Rock Desert in Nevada.

1985 – The Free Software Foundation is founded.

1991 – The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is opened for signature.

1992 – The Rome General Peace Accords end a 16-year civil war in Mozambique.

1992 – El Al Flight 1862 crashes into two apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 including 39 on the ground.

1993 – Battle of Mogadishu occurs killing 18 U.S. Special Forces, two UN Peacekeepers and at least 600 Somalian militia men and civilians.

1993 – Tanks bombard the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Yeltsin rally outside.

1997 – The second largest cash robbery in U.S. history occurs in North Carolina

2001 – Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 crashes after being struck by an errant Ukrainian missile. Seventy-eight people are killed.

2003 – The Maxim restaurant suicide bombing Israel kills twenty-one Israelis, both Jews and Arabs.

2004 – SpaceShipOne wins the Ansari X Prize for private spaceflight.

2006 – WikiLeaks is launched.

2010 – The Ajka plant accident Hungary releases a million cubic metres of liquid alumina sludge, killing nine, injuring 122, and severely contaminating two major rivers.

2017 – Nigerien and U.S. Special Forces are ambushed by Islamic State militants outside the village of Tongo Tongo.

October 5-9

October 5

610 – Heraclius arrives at Constantinople, kills Byzantine Emperor Phocas, and becomes emperor.

816 – King Louis the Pious is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope.

869 – The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to depose patriarch Photios I.

1143 – King Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognises Portugal as a Kingdom.

1450 – Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria expels Jews from his jurisdiction.

1550 – The city of Concepción is founded, in present-day Chile.

1607 – Assassins sent by the Pope attempt to kill Venetian statesman and scientist Paolo Sarpi.

1665 – The University of Kiel is founded.

1789 – French Revolution: The Women’s March on Versailles effectively terminates royal authority.

1813 – War of 1812: The Army of the Northwest defeats a British and Native Canadian force threatening Detroit.

1838 – The Killough massacre in east Texas sees eighteen Texian settlers either killed or kidnapped.

1857 – The city of Anaheim, California is founded.

1869 – The Saxby Gale devastates the Bay of Fundy region in Canada.

1869 – The Hennepin Island tunnel collapses during construction, nearly destroying St. Anthony Falls.

1877 – The Nez Perce War in the northwestern United States comes to an end.

1905 – The Wright brothers pilot the Wright Flyer III in a new world record flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes.

1910 – In a revolution in Portugal the monarchy is overthrown and a republic is declared.

1911 – The Kowloon–Canton Railway commences service.

1914 – World War I: An aircraft successfully destroys another aircraft with gunfire.

1921 – The World Series is the first to be broadcast on radio.

1930 – British airship R101 crashes in France en route to India on its maiden voyage.

1936 – The Jarrow March sets off for London.

1938 – In Nazi Germany, Jews’ passports are invalidated.

1943 – Ninety-eight American POWs are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

1944 – The Provisional Government of the French Republic enfranchises women.

1945 – A six-month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into a bloody riot at the gates of the Warner Brothers studio.

1947 – President Truman makes the first televised Oval Office address.

1948 – The Ashgabat earthquake kills between 10,000 and 110,000 people.

1966 – A reactor at the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station near Detroit suffers a partial meltdown.

1968 – A Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Derry is violently suppressed by police.

1970 – The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is founded.

1970 – The British Trade Commissioner is kidnapped by members of the FLQ, triggering the October Crisis in Canada.

1974 – Bombs planted by the PIRA kill four British soldiers and one civilian.

1982 – Tylenol products are recalled after bottles in Chicago laced with cyanide cause seven deaths.

1984 – Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space.

1986 – Mordechai Vanunu’s story in The Sunday Times reveals Israel’s secret nuclear weapons.

1988 – A Chilean opposition coalition defeats Augusto Pinochet in his re-election attempt.

1990 – After 150 years The Herald newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, is published for the last time as a separate newspaper.

1991 – An Indonesian Air Force C-130 crash kills 135 people.

1999 – The Ladbroke Grove rail crash in west London kills 31 people.

2000 – Mass demonstrations in Serbia force the resignation of Slobodan Milošević.

2011 – In the Mekong River massacre, two Chinese cargo boats are hijacked and 13 crew members murdered.

October 6

105 BC – Cimbrian War: Defeat at the Battle of Arausio accelerates the Marian reforms of the Roman army.

69 BC – Third Mithridatic War: Forces of the Roman Republic subdue Armenia.

AD 23 – Rebels decapitate Wang Mang two days after his capital was sacked during a peasant rebellion.

404 – Byzantine Empress Eudoxia dies from the miscarriage of her seventh and last pregnancy.

618 – Transition from Sui to Tang: Wang Shichong decisively defeats Li Mi at the Battle of Yanshi.

1539 – Spain’s DeSoto expedition takes over the Apalachee capital of Anhaica for their winter quarters.

1600 – Euridice, the earliest surviving opera, receives its première performance, beginning the Baroque period.

1683 – Immigrant families found Germantown, Pennsylvania in the first major immigration of German people to America.

1762 – Seven Years’ War: The British Capture Manila from Spain and occupy it.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces capture Forts Clinton and Montgomery on the Hudson River.

1789 – French Revolution: King Louis XVI is forced to change his residence from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace.

1849 – The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence.

1854 – In England the Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead leads to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.

1884 – The Naval War College of the United States is founded in Rhode Island.

1898 – Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the largest American music fraternity, is founded at the New England Conservatory of Music.

1903 – The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.

1908 – The Bosnian crisis erupts when Austria-Hungary formally annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1910 – Eleftherios Venizelos is elected prime minister of Greece for the first of seven times.

1923 – The Turkish National Movement enters Constantinople.

1927 – Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent “talkie” movie.

1939 – World War II: The Battle of Kock is the final combat of the September Campaign in Poland.

1942 – World War II: American troops force the Japanese from their positions east of the Matanikau River on Guadalcanal.

1943 – World War II: Thirteen civilians are burnt alive by a paramilitary group in Crete.

1944 – World War II: Units of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps enter Czechoslovakia during the Battle of the Dukla Pass.

1973 – Egypt and Syria launch coordinated attacks against Israel, beginning the Yom Kippur War.

1976 – Cubana de Aviación Flight 455 is destroyed by two bombs, placed on board by an anti-Castro militant group.

1976 – Premier Hua Guofeng arrests the Gang of Four, ending the Cultural Revolution in China.

1976 – Dozens are killed by the Thai army in the Thammasat University massacre.

1977 – The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-29, designated 9-01, makes its maiden flight.

1979 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first pontiff to visit the White House.

1981 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is murdered by Islamic extremists.

1985 – Police constable Keith Blakelock is murdered as riots erupt in the Broadwater Farm suburb of London.

1987 – Fiji becomes a republic.

1995 – The first planet orbiting another sun, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered.

2007 – Jason Lewis completes the first human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.

2010 – Instagram, a mainstream photo-sharing application, is founded.

October 7

3761 BC – The epoch reference date epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar.

1403 – Venetian–Genoese wars: The Genoese fleet under a French admiral is defeated by a Venetian fleet.

1477 – Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year.

1513 – War of the League of Cambrai: Spain defeats Venice.

1571 – The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Ottoman Navy suffers its first defeat.

1691 – The charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued.

1763 – King George III issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing Indigenous lands in North America north and west of the Alleghenies to white settlements.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: American militia defeat royalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.

1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent.

1826 – The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S.

1828 – Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force.

1840 – Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.

1864 – American Civil War: A US Navy ship captures a Confederate raider in a Brazilian seaport.

1868 – Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date.

1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Léon Gambetta escapes the siege of Paris in a hot-air balloon.

1879 – Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.

1912 – The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.

1916 – Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history.

1919 – KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

1924 – Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes prime minister of Greece for a short period of time.

1929 – Photius II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

1933 – Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of five French airlines.

1940 – World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.

1944 – World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV.

1949 – The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.

1950 – Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity.

1958 – The 1958 Pakistani coup d’état inaugurates a prolonged period of military rule.

1958 – The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury.

1959 – The Soviet probe Luna 3 transmits the first-ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.

1963 – President Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

1977 – The Fourth Soviet Constitution is adopted.

1985 – The Mameyes landslide kills almost 200 people in Puerto Rico.

1985 – Four men from the Palestine Liberation Front hijack the MS Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt.

1987 – Sikh nationalists declare the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized.

1988 – A hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice near Alaska; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales.

1991 – Croatian War of Independence: Bombing of Banski dvori in Zagreb, Croatia.

1993 – The flood of ’93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage.

1996 – Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming. He died five days later.

2000 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Hezbollah militants capture three Israeli Defense Force soldiers in a cross-border raid.

2001 – The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.

2002 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on STS-112 to continue assembly of the International Space Station.

2008 – Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacts the Earth over Sudan, the first time an asteroid impact is detected prior to its entry into earth’s atmosphere.

2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to 800.

October 8

314 – Constantine I defeats Roman Emperor Licinius, who loses his European territories.

451 – The first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins.

876 – Frankish forces led by Louis the Younger prevent a West Frankish invasion and defeat emperor Charles II (“the Bald”).

1075 – Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned King of Croatia.

1200 – Isabella of Angoulême is crowned Queen consort of England.

1322 – Mladen II Šubić of Bribir is deposed as the Croatian Ban after the Battle of Bliska.

1480 – The Great stand on the Ugra river puts an end to Tartar rule over Moscow

1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in the Eighty Years’ War.

1645 – Jeanne Mance open the first lay hospital in North America.

1813 – The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

1821 – The Peruvian Navy is established during the War of Independence.

1829 – Stephenson’s Rocket wins the Rainhill Trials.

1856 – The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident.

1862 – American Civil War: The Confederate invasion of Kentucky is halted at the Battle of Perryville.

1871 – The Great Chicago Fire and the much deadlier Peshtigo Fire break out.

1879 – War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos.

1895 – Korean Empress Myeongseong is assassinated by Japanese infiltrators.

1912 – The First Balkan War begins when Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.

1918 – World War I: Corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132 for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor.

1921 – KDKA in Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field conducts the first live broadcast of a football game.

1939 – World War II: Germany annexes western Poland.

1941 – World War II: During the preliminaries of the Battle of Rostov, German forces reach the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.

1943 – World War II: Around 30 civilians are executed by Friedrich Schubert’s paramilitary group in Kallikratis, Crete.

1944 – World War II: Captain Bobbie Brown earns a Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Crucifix Hill, just outside Aachen.

1952 – The Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash kills 112 people.

1956 – The New York Yankees’s Don Larsen pitches the only perfect game in a World Series.

1962 – Der Spiegel publishes an article disclosing the sorry state of the Bundeswehr, and is soon accused of treason.

1967 – Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.

1969 – The opening rally of the Days of Rage occurs, organized by the Weather Underground in Chicago.

1970 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wins the Nobel Prize in literature.

1973 – Yom Kippur War: Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian-occupied positions.

1973 – Spyros Markezinis begins his 48-day term as prime minister in an abortive attempt to lead Greece to parliamentary rule.

1974 – Franklin National Bank collapses due to fraud and mismanagement; at the time it is the largest bank failure in the history of the United States.

1978 – Australia’s Ken Warby sets the current world water speed record of 317.60 mph at Blowering Dam, Australia.

1982 – Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

1982 – Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.

1990 – Second Intifada: Israeli police kill 17 Palestinians and wound over 100 near the Dome of the Rock.

1991 – Upon the expiration of the Brioni Agreement, Croatia and Slovenia sever all official relations with Yugoslavia.

2001 – A twin engine Cessna and a Scandinavian Airlines System jetliner collide in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy, killing 118 people.

2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.

2005 – The 7.6 Mw  Kashmir earthquake leaves 86,000–87,351 people dead, 69,000–75,266 injured, and 2.8 million homeless.

2014 – Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person in the United States to be diagnosed with Ebola, dies.

2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to nearly 900.

2019 – About 200 Extinction Rebellion activists block the gates of Leinster House (parliament) in the Republic of Ireland.

October 9

768 – Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned kings of the Franks.

1238 – James I of Aragon founds the Kingdom of Valencia.

1410 – The first known mention of the Prague astronomical clock.

1446 – The hangul alphabet is published in Korea.

1594 – Troops of the Portuguese Empire are defeated on Sri Lanka, bringing an end to the Campaign of Danture.

1604 – Supernova 1604 is sighted, the most recent supernova to be observed within the Milky Way.

1635 – Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony after religious and policy disagreements.

1701 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook.

1708 – Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.

1740 – Dutch colonists and Javanese natives begin massacring the ethnic Chinese population in Batavia, eventually killing 10,000.

1760 – Seven Years’ War: Russian and Austrian troops briefly occupy Berlin.

1790 – A severe earthquake in northern Algeria causes severe damage and a tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea and kills three thousand.

1799 – HMS Lutine sinks with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.

1804 – Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.

1806 – Prussia begins the War of the Fourth Coalition against France.

1812 – War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces capture two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia.

1820 – Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.

1824 – Slavery in Latin America: Slavery is abolished in Costa Rica.

1825 – Restauration arrives in New York Harbor from Norway, the first organized immigration from Norway to the United States.

1831 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of independent Greece, is assassinated.

1834 – Opening of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first public railway on the island of Ireland.

1847 – Slavery in the British and French Caribbean: Slavery is abolished in Saint Barthélemy.

1854 – Crimean War: The siege of Sevastopol begins.

1861 – American Civil War: Union troops repel a Confederate attempt to capture Fort Pickens.

1864 – American Civil War: Union cavalrymen defeat Confederate forces at Toms Brook, Virginia.

1873 – A meeting at the U.S. Naval Academy establishes the U.S. Naval Institute.

1874 – The Universal Postal Union is created by the Treaty of Bern.

1900 – The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom.

1907 – Las Cruces, New Mexico is incorporated.

1911 – An accidental bomb explosion triggers the Wuchang Uprising against the Chinese monarchy.

1913 – The steamship SS Volturno catches fire in the mid-Atlantic.

1914 – World War I: The Siege of Antwerp comes to an end.

1918 – The Finnish Parliament offers to Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse the throne of a short-lived Kingdom of Finland.

1919 – The Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, resulting in the Black Sox Scandal.

1934 – An Ustashe assassin kills King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, Foreign Minister of France, in Marseille.

1936 – Boulder Dam (later Hoover Dam) begins to generate electricity and transmit it to Los Angeles.

1937 – Murder of 9 Catholic priests in Zhengding, China, who protected the local population from the advancing Japanese army.

1941 – A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president.

1942 – Australia’s Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 receives royal assent.

1950 – The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins.

1962 – Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm.

1963 – In Italy, a large landslide a causes a giant wave to overtop the Vajont Dam, killing over 2,000.

1966 – Vietnam War: South Korean troops commit the Binh Tai Massacre.

1967 – A day after his capture, Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.

1969 – In Chicago, the National Guard is called in as demonstrations continue over the trial of the “Chicago Eight”.

1970 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia.

1980 – Pope John Paul II greets the Dalai Lama during a private audience in Vatican City.

1981 – President Francois Mitterrand abolishes capital punishment in France.

1983 – South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan survives an assassination attempt in Rangoon, Burma (present-day Yangon, Myanmar), but the blast kills 21 and injures 17 others.

1986 – The Phantom of the Opera, eventually the second longest running musical in London, opens at Her Majesty’s Theatre.

1995 – An Amtrak Sunset Limited train is derailed by saboteurs near Palo Verde, Arizona.

2003 – Mission: Space opens to the public in Walt Disney World.

2006 – North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

2009 – First lunar impact of NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program.

2012 – Pakistani Taliban attempt to assassinate outspoken schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai.

2016 – The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army launches its first attack on Myanmar security forces along the Bangladesh–Myanmar border.

2019 – Turkey begins its military offensive in north-eastern Syria.

October 10-14

October 10

680 – The Battle of Karbala was fought.

732 – Charles Martel’s forces defeat an Umayyad army near Tours, France.

1471 – Sten Sture the Elder, the Regent of Sweden, with the help of farmers and miners, repels an attack by King Christian I of Denmark.

1575 – Roman Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.

1580 – Over 600 Papal troops land in Ireland to support the Second Desmond Rebellion.

1631 – Thirty Years’ War: An army of the Electorate of Saxony seizes Prague.

1760 – In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname – descended from escaped slaves – gain territorial autonomy.

1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean.

1814 – War of 1812: The United States Revenue Marine attempts to defend the cutter Eagle from the Royal Navy.

1845 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later the United States Naval Academy) opens with 50 students.

1846 – Triton, the largest moon of the planet Neptune, is discovered by English astronomer William Lassell.

1868 – The Ten Years’ War begins against Spanish rule in Cuba.

1871 – Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8–10.

1903 – The Women’s Social and Political Union is founded in support of the enfranchisement of British women.

1911 – The day after a bomb explodes prematurely, the Wuchang Uprising begins against the Chinese monarchy.

1913 – U.S. President Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, completing major construction on the Panama Canal.

1918 – RMS Leinster is torpedoed and sunk by UB-123, killing 564, the worst-ever on the Irish Sea.

1920 – The Carinthian plebiscite determines that the larger part of the Duchy of Carinthia should remain part of Austria.

1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China.

1933 – A United Airlines Boeing 247 is destroyed by sabotage, the first such proven case in the history of commercial aviation.

1935 – In Greece, a coup d’état ends the Second Hellenic Republic.

1938 – Abiding by the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia completes its withdrawal from the Sudetenland.

1945 – The Double Tenth Agreement is signed by the Communist Party and the Kuomintang about the future of China.

1954 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Sultanate of Muscat, Neil Innes, sends a signal to the Sultanate’s forces, accompanied with oil explorers, to penetrate Fahud, marking the beginning of Jebel Akhdar War between the Imamate of Oman and the Sultanate of Muscat.

1957 – U.S. President Eisenhower apologizes to Ghanaian finance minister Gbedemah after he is refused service in a Delaware restaurant.

1957 – The Windscale fire results in Britain’s worst nuclear accident.

1963 – France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia.

1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.

1964 – The Tokyo Summer Olympics opening ceremony is the first to be relayed live by satellites.

1966 – The Beach Boys release one of their biggest singles, ranked the 6th greatest song by Rolling Stone, “Good Vibrations”.

1967 – The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

1970 – Fiji becomes independent.

1970 – Canada’s October Crisis escalates when Quebec’s vice-premier is kidnapped by members of the FLQ.

1973 – U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns after being charged with evasion of federal income tax.

1975 – Papua New Guinea joins the United Nations.

1980 – The 7.1 Mw  El Asnam earthquake shakes northern Algeria, killing 2,633 and injuring 8,369.

1980 – The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front is founded in El Salvador.

1985 – US Navy aircraft intercept an Egyptian airliner carrying the perpetrators of the Achille Lauro hijacking, and force it to land in Italy.

1986 – A 5.7 Mw  San Salvador earthquake shakes El Salvador, killing 1,500.

1997 – Austral Líneas Aéreas Flight 2553 crashes and explodes in Uruguay, killing 74.

1998 – A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises jetliner is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people.

2009 – Armenia and Turkey sign the Zurich Protocols, intended to normalize relations. However, they are never ratified by either side.

2010 – The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.

2015 – Twin bomb blasts in the Turkish capital Ankara kill 102 and injure 400.

2018 – Hurricane Michael makes landfall in the Florida Panhandle as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane. It kills 57 people in the United States, 45 in Florida, and causes an estimated $25.1 billion in damage.

October 11

1138 – A massive earthquake strikes Aleppo; it is one of the most destructive earthquakes ever.
1142 – A peace treaty ends the Jin–Song wars.
1311 – The peerage and clergy restrict the authority of English kings with the Ordinances of 1311.
1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.
1614 – The New Netherland Company applies to the States General of the Netherlands for exclusive trading rights in what is now the northeastern United States.
1634 – The Burchardi flood kills around 15,000 in North Friesland, Denmark and Germany.
1649 – Cromwell’s New Model Army Sacks Wexford, killing over 2,000 Irish Confederate troops and 1,500 civilians.
1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.
1776 – American Revolution: A fleet of American boats on Lake Champlain is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777.
1797 – The Royal Navy decisively defeats the Batavian Navy at Camperdown during the French Revolutionary Wars.
1811 – The Juliana begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry in New York harbor.
1840 – The Maronite leader Bashir Shihab II surrenders to the Ottoman Empire and later is sent to Malta in exile.
1852 – The University of Sydney, Australia’s oldest university, is inaugurated in Sydney.
1862 – American Civil War: Confederate troops conduct a raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
1865 – Hundreds of black men and women march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
1890 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
1899 – The Second Boer War erupts in South Africa between the British-ruled Cape Colony, and the Boer-ruled Transvaal and Orange Free State.
1906 – San Francisco sparks a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan by ordering segregated schools for Japanese students.
1910 – Piloted by Arch Hoxsey, Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. president to fly in an airplane.
1912 – First Balkan War: The day after the Battle of Sarantaporo, Greek troops liberate the city of Kozani.
1918 – The 7.1 Mw San Fermín earthquake shakes Puerto Rico. The quake and resulting tsunami kill up to 116 people.
1937 – The Duke and Duchess of Windsor tour Nazi Germany for 12 days and meet Adolf Hitler on the 22nd.
1941 – Beginning of the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
1942 – World War II: Off Guadalcanal, United States Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese force.
1944 – The Tuvan People’s Republic is annexed by the Soviet Union.
1950 – CBS’s field-sequential color system for television is the first to be licensed for broadcast by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.
1954 – In accord with the 1954 Geneva Conference, French troops complete their withdrawal from North Vietnam.
1958 – NASA launches Pioneer 1, its first space probe, although it fails to achieve a stable orbit.
1962 – The Second Vatican Council becomes the first ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.
1968 – NASA launches Apollo 7, the first successful manned Apollo mission.
1972 – A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam.
1976 – George Washington is posthumously promoted to the grade of General of the Armies.
1984 – Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk.
1984 – Aeroflot Flight 3352 crashes into maintenance vehicles upon landing in Omsk, Russia, killing 178.
1986 – Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Iceland to continue discussions about scaling back IRBM arsenals in Europe.
1987 – The AIDS Memorial Quilt is first displayed during the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.
1987 – Start of Operation Pawan by Indian forces in Sri Lanka. Thousands of civilians, insurgents, soldiers die.
1991 – Prof. Anita Hill delivers her televised testimony concerning sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination.
2000 – NASA launches STS-92, the 100th Space Shuttle mission.
2001 – The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection.
2002 – A bomb attack in a shopping mall in Finland kills seven.
2013 – A migrant boat sinks in the Channel of Sicily, with at least 34 people drowning.
2018 – Soyuz MS-10, launching an intended crew for the ISS, suffers an in-flight abort. The crew lands safely.

October 12

539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon, ending the Babylonian empire. (Julian calendar)
633 – Battle of Hatfield Chase: King Edwin of Northumbria is defeated and killed by the British under Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd.
1279 – The Nichiren Shōshū branch of Buddhism is founded in Japan.
1398 – In the Treaty of Salynas, Lithuania cedes Samogitia to the Teutonic Knights.
1492 – Christopher Columbus’s first expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas.
1654 – The Delft Explosion devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100 people.
1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Province.
1748 – War of Jenkins’ Ear : A British squadron wins a tactical victory over a Spanish squadron off Havana.
1773 – America’s first insane asylum opens.
1792 – The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York City.
1793 – The cornerstone of Old East, the oldest state university building in the United States, is laid at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
1798 – Flemish and Luxembourgish peasants launch the rebellion against French rule known as the Peasants’ War.
1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse becomes the first woman to jump from a balloon with a parachute.
1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.
1822 – Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed the emperor.
1847 – Werner von Siemens founds Siemens & Halske, which later becomes Siemens AG.
1849 – The city of Manizales, Colombia, is founded by ‘The Expedition of the 20’.
1871 – The British in India enact the Criminal Tribes Act, naming many local communities “Criminal Tribes”.
1890 – Uddevalla Suffrage Association is formed.
1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many US public schools.
1901 – President Theodore Roosevelt officially renames the “Executive Mansion” to the White House.
1915 – World War I: British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium
1917 – World War I: The First Battle of Passchendaele takes place resulting in the largest single day loss of life in New Zealand history.
1918 – A massive forest fire kills 453 people in Minnesota.
1928 – An iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Children’s Hospital, Boston.
1933 – The military Alcatraz Citadel becomes the civilian Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary.
1944 – World War II: The Axis occupation of Athens comes to an end.
1945 – World War II: Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the U.S. Medal of Honor.
1959 – At the national congress of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance in Peru, a group of leftist radicals are expelled from the party who later form APRA Rebelde.
1960 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a desk at the United Nations to protest a Philippine assertion.
1960 – Japan Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma is stabbed to death during a live Television broadcast.
1962 – The Columbus Day Storm strikes the U.S. Pacific Northwest with record wind velocities; 46 dead and at least U.S. $230 million in damages.
1963 – After nearly 23 years of imprisonment, Reverend Walter Ciszek, a Jesuit missionary, was released from the Soviet Union.
1964 – The Soviet Union launches the Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew, and the first flight without pressure suits.
1968 – Equatorial Guinea becomes independent from Spain.
1970 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization continues as President Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas.
1971 – The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire begins.
1979 – The lowest recorded non-tornadic atmospheric pressure, 87.0 kPa (870 mbar or 25.69 inHg), occurred in the western Pacific Ocean during Typhoon Tip.
1983 – Japan’s former Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei is found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from the Lockheed Corporation, and is sentenced to four years in jail.
1984 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army fail to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. The bomb kills five people and wounds 31.
1988 – Two officers of the Victoria Police are gunned down execution-style in the Walsh Street police shootings, Australia.
1992 – A 5.8 earthquake occurred in Cairo, Egypt. At least 510 died.
1994 – The Magellan spacecraft burns up in the atmosphere of Venus.
1997 – The Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria kills 43 people at a fake roadblock.
1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at University of Wyoming, dies five days after he was beaten outside of Laramie.
1999 – Pervez Musharraf takes power in Pakistan from Nawaz Sharif through a bloodless coup.
1999 – The former Autonomous Soviet Republic of Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia.
2000 – The USS Cole, a US Navy destroyer is badly damaged by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39.
2002 – Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300.
2005 – The second Chinese human spaceflight, Shenzhou 6, is launched, carrying two cosmonauts in orbit for five days.
2013 – Fifty-one people are killed after a truck veers off a cliff in Peru.
2017 – The United States announces its decision to withdraw from UNESCO and is immediately followed by Israel.
2018 – Princess Eugenie marries Jack Brooksbank at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle.
2019 – Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall in Japan, killing 10 and forcing the evacutation of 1,000,000 people.
2019 – Eliud Kipchoge from Kenya becomes the first person to run a marathon in less than two hours with a time of 1:59:40 in Vienna.
2019 – The Hard Rock Hotel in New Orleans, which is under construction, collapses, killing two and injuring 20.

October 13 

AD 54 – Roman emperor Claudius dies from poisoning under mysterious circumstances.
409 – Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.
1269 – The present church building at Westminster Abbey is consecrated.
1307 – Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are arrested at dawn by King Phillip the Fair, and later confess under torture to heresy.
1332 – Rinchinbal Khan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan dynasty, reigning for only 53 days.
1399 – Coronation of Henry IV of England at Westminster Abbey.
1644 – A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners.
1710 – Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.
1775 – The Continental Congress establishes the Continental Navy (predecessor of the United States Navy).
1792 – In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.
1793 – French Revolutionary Wars: Austro-Prussian victory over Republican France at the First Battle of Wissembourg.
1812 – War of 1812: Sir Isaac Brock’s British and native forces repel an invasion of Canada by General Rensselaer’s United States forces.
1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is publicly proclaimed.
1843 – In New York City, B’nai B’rith, the oldest Jewish service organization in the world, is founded.
1881 – First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.
1884 – The International Meridian Conference establishes the meridian of the Greenwich Observatory as the prime meridian.
1885 – The Georgia Institute of Technology is founded in Atlanta, Georgia.
1892 – Edward Emerson Barnard discovers first comet discovered by photographic means.
1903 – The Boston Red Sox win the first modern World Series, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the eighth game.
1908 – Margaret Travers Symons bursts into the UK parliament and became the first woman to speak there.
1911 – Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor General of Canada of royal descent.
1915 – First World War: The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos.
1917 – The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Portugal.
1921 – Soviet republics sign the Treaty of Kars to formalize the borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.
1923 – Ankara becomes the capital of Turkey.
1943 – World War II: Marshal Pietro Badoglio announces that Italy has officially declared war on Germany.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Riga Offensive captures the city.
1946 – France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.
1962 – The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane, with winds above 150 mph. 46 people die.
1972 – Aeroflot Flight 217 crashes outside Moscow, killing 174.
1972 – Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains. 28 survive the crash. All but 16 succumb before rescue on December 23.
1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola virus is taken at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Dr. F. A. Murphy.
1977 – Hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 181 by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
1983 – Ameritech Mobile Communications launches the first US cellular network in Chicago.
1990 – Syrian forces attack free areas of Lebanon, removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.
2010 – The mining accident in Copiapó, Chile ends as all 33 trapped miners arrive at the surface after a record 69 days underground.
2013 – A stampede occurs in India during the Hindu festival Navratri, killing 115 and injuring more than 110.
2016 – The Maldives announces its decision to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations.
2019 – Kenyan Brigid Kosgei sets a new world record for a woman runner with a time of 2:14:04 at the 2019 Chicago Marathon.

October 14

1066 – The Norman conquest of England begins with the Battle of Hastings.
1322 – Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at the Battle of Old Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence.
1582 – Because of the adoption of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I of England.
1656 – The US state of Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
1758 – Seven Years’ War: Frederick the Great suffers a rare defeat at the Battle of Hochkirch.
1773 – The first recorded ministry of education, the Commission of National Education, is formed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1805 – War of the Third Coalition: A French corps defeats an Austrian attempt to escape encirclement at Ulm.
1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Napoleon decisively defeats Prussia at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt.
1808 – The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France.
1843 – Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell arrested by British on charges of criminal conspiracy.
1863 – American Civil War: Confederate troops under the command of A. P. Hill fail to drive the Union Army completely out of Virginia.
1884 – George Eastman receives a U.S. Government patent on his new paper-strip photographic film.
1888 – Louis Le Prince films the first motion picture, Roundhay Garden Scene.
1898 – The steam ship SS Mohegan sinks near the Lizard peninsula, Cornwall, killing 106.
1908 – The Chicago Cubs defeat the Detroit Tigers, 2–0, clinching the 1908 World Series; this would be their last until winning the 2016 World Series.
1910 – English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his aircraft on Executive Avenue near the White House in Washington, D.C.
1912 – Former president Theodore Roosevelt is shot and mildly wounded by John Flammang Schrank. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Roosevelt delivers his scheduled speech.
1913 – Senghenydd colliery disaster, the United Kingdom’s worst coal mining accident, claims the lives of 439 miners.
1915 – World War I: Bulgaria joins the Central Powers.
1920 – Finland and Soviet Russia sign the Treaty of Tartu, exchanging some territories.
1926 – The children’s book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is first published.
1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations and World Disarmament Conference.
1938 – The first flight of the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighter plane.
1939 – World War II: The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland.
1940 – World War II: The Balham underground station disaster kills sixty-six people during the London Blitz.
1943 – World War II: Prisoners at the Sobibór extermination camp in Poland revolt against the Germans.
1943 – World War II: The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 of 291 B-17 Flying Fortress during the Second Raid on Schweinfurt.
1943 – World War II: The Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state of Japan, is inaugurated with José P. Laurel as its president.
1947 – Chuck Yeager becomes the first person to exceed the speed of sound.
1949 – The Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders in the United States convicts eleven defendants of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the federal government.
1952 – Korean War: The Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952.
1956 – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, leader of India’s Untouchable caste, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 of his followers (see Neo-Buddhism).
1957 – The 23rd Canadian Parliament becomes the only one to be personally opened by the Queen of Canada.
1957 – At least 81 people are killed in the most devastating flood in the history of the Spanish city of Valencia.
1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.
1964 – Martin Luther King Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.
1964 – The Soviet Presidium and the Communist Party Central Committee each vote to accept Nikita Khrushchev’s “voluntary” request to retire from his offices.
1966 – The city of Montreal begins the operation of its underground Montreal Metro rapid transit system.
1968 – The first live TV broadcast by American astronauts in orbit is performed by the Apollo 7 crew.
1968 – The 6.5 Mw  Meckering earthquake shook the southwest portion of Western Australia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), causing $2.2 million in damage and leaving 20–28 people injured.
1968 – Jim Hines becomes the first man ever to break the so-called “ten-second barrier” in the 100-meter sprint with a time of 9.95 seconds.
1973 – In the Thammasat student uprising, over 100,000 people protest in Thailand against the military government. Seventy-seven are killed and 857 are injured by soldiers.
1977 – Anita Bryant gets a pie thrown in her face at a news conference in Des Moines by gay rights activist Tom Higgins for her anti-LGBT commentary.
1979 – The first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights draws approximately 100,000 people.
1981 – Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.
1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.
1991 – Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1994 – Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in the establishment of the Oslo Accords and the framing of future Palestinian self government.
1998 – Eric Rudolph is charged with six bombings, including the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia.
2003 – The Steve Bartman Incident takes place at Wrigley Field in Chicago, Illinois.
2004 – MK Airlines Flight 1602 crashes during takeoff from Halifax Stanfield International Airport, killing all seven people on board.
2004 – Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701 crashes in Jefferson City, Missouri. The two pilots (the aircraft’s only occupants) are killed.
2012 – Felix Baumgartner successfully jumps to Earth from a balloon in the stratosphere.
2014 – A snowstorm and avalanche in the Nepalese Himalayas triggered by the remnants of Cyclone Hudhud kills 43 people.
2014 – Utah State University receives a bomb threat against feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesian, who was to give a lecture the next day.
2014 – The Serbia vs. Albania UEFA qualifying match is canceled after 42 minutes due to several incidents on and off the pitch. Albania is eventually awarded a win.
2015 – A suicide bomb attack in Pakistan kills at least seven people and injures 13 others.
2017 – A massive truck bombing in Somalia kills 358 people and injures more than 400 others.

October 15-19

October 15

1066 – Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned. He reigns until 10 December 1066.
1211 – Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Laskaris.
1529 – The Siege of Vienna ends when Austria routs the invading Ottoman forces, ending its European expansion.
1582 – Adoption of the Gregorian calendar begins, eventually leading to near-universal adoption.
1783 – The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.
1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted, and condemned to death the following day.
1809 – The Viceroy the Río de la Plata, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, opens the port of Buenos Aires to trade with nations other than Spain.
1815 – Napoleon begins his exile on Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
1863 – American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks, killing its inventor.
1864 – American Civil War: The Union garrison of Glasgow, Missouri surrenders to Confederate forces.
1878 – The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.
1879 – The Segura river in southeastern Spain floods, killing 1077 people.
1888 – The “From Hell” letter allegedly sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.
1910 – Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.
1917 – World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by France for espionage.
1923 – The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.
1928 – The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.
1932 – Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.
1939 – The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.
1940 – President Lluís Companys of Catalonia is executed by the Francoist government.
1944 – World War II: Germany replaces the Hungarian government after it announces an armistice with the Soviet Union.
1945 – The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed for treason.
1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes completes the synthesis of norethisterone, the basis of an early oral contraceptive.
1954 – Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard of North America, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto.
1956 – FORTRAN, the first modern computer language, is first shared with the coding community.
1965 – Vietnam War: A draft card is burned during an anti-war rally by the Catholic Worker Movement, resulting in the first arrest under a new law.
1966 – The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
1979 – Supporters of the Malta Labour Party ransack and destroy the Times of Malta building and other locations associated with the Nationalist Party.
1989 – Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.
1989 – Eight of those convicted in the Rivonia Trial are released from prison.
1990 – Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.
1991 – The “Oh-My-God particle”, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray measured at 40,000,000 times that of the highest energy protons produced in a particle accelerator is observed at the University of Utah HiRes observatory in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.
1994 – The Clinton administration returns Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, to the island.
1995 – Marco Campos dies in a race at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours, the only driver ever killed in the International Formula 3000 series.
1995 – Saddam Hussein is reelected president of Iraq through a referendum.
1997 – The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
2001 – NASA’s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter’s moon Io.
2003 – China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.
2005 – A planned neo-Nazi protest against African-American street gangs sets off a riot in Toledo, Ohio. Twenty-nine people are arrested.
2006 – The 6.7 Mw Kiholo Bay earthquake rocks Hawaii, causing property damage, injuries, landslides, power outages, and the closure of Honolulu International Airport.
2007 – Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country’s first post-9/11 anti-terrorism raids.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst percentage drop in the Dow’s history.
2011 – The 2011 Global Protests occur.
2013 – The 7.2 Mw Bohol earthquake strikes the Philippines. At least 215 die.
2016 – One hundred ninety-seven nations amend the Montreal Protocol to include a phase-out of hydrofluorocarbons.

October 16

456 – Ricimer defeats Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire.
690 – Empress Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire.
912 – Abd ar-Rahman III becomes the 8th Emir of Córdoba.
955 – King Otto I defeats a Slavic revolt in what is now Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
1311 – The Council of Vienne convenes for the first time.
1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman.
1590 – Prince Gesualdo of Venosa murders his wife and her lover.
1736 – Mathematician William Whiston’s predicted comet fails to strike the Earth.
1780 – American Revolutionary War: The British-led Royalton raid is the last Native American raid on New England.
1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 finishes after its sixth day, killing between 20,000 and 24,000 residents of the Lesser Antilles.
1793 – French Revolution: Queen Marie Antoinette is executed.
1793 – War of the First Coalition: French victory at the Battle of Wattignies forces Austria to raise the siege of Maubeuge.
1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Napoleon surrounds the Austrian army at Ulm.
1813 – The Sixth Coalition attacks Napoleon in the three-day Battle of Leipzig.
1817 – Simón Bolívar sentences Manuel Piar to death for challenging the racial-caste in Venezuela.
1834 – Much of the ancient structure of the Palace of Westminster in London burns to the ground.
1836 – Great Trek: Afrikaner voortrekkers repulse a Matabele attack, but lose their livestock.
1841 – Queen’s University is founded in the Province of Canada.
1843 – William Rowan Hamilton invents quaternions, a three-dimensional system of complex numbers.
1846 – William T. G. Morton administers ether anesthesia during a surgical operation.
1847 – The novel Jane Eyre is published in London.
1859 – John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
1869 – The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous American hoaxes, is “discovered”.
1869 – Girton College, Cambridge is founded, becoming England’s first residential college for women.
1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
1882 – The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business.
1905 – The Partition of Bengal in India takes place.
1906 – The Wilhelm Voigt fools the city hall of Köpenick and several soldiers by impersonating a Prussian officer.
1909 – William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz hold the first summit between a U.S. and a Mexican president. They narrowly escape assassination.
1916 – Margaret Sanger opens the first family planning clinic in the United States.
1919 – Adolf Hitler delivers his first public address at a meeting of the German Workers’ Party.
1923 – The Walt Disney Company is founded.
1934 – Chinese Communists begin the Long March to escape Nationalist encirclement.
1939 – World War II: No. 603 Squadron RAF intercepts the first Luftwaffe raid on Britain.
1940 – Holocaust in Poland: The Warsaw Ghetto is established.
1943 – Holocaust in Italy: Raid of the Ghetto of Rome.
1946 – Nuremberg trials: Ten defendants found guilty by the International Military Tribunal are executed by hanging.
1947 – The Philippines takes over the administration of the Turtle Islands and the Mangsee Islands from the United Kingdom.
1949 – The Greek Communist Party announces a “temporary cease-fire”, thus ending the Greek Civil War.
1950 – The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis is published.
1951 – The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated in Rawalpindi.
1962 – Cuban missile crisis begins: Kennedy is informed of photos taken on October 14 by a U-2 showing nuclear missiles (the crisis will last for 13 days starting from this point).
1964 – China detonates its first nuclear weapon.
1964 – Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Communist Party, while Alexei Kosygin becomes the head of government.
1968 – Tommie Smith and John Carlos are ejected from the US Olympic team for participating in the Olympics Black Power salute.
1968 – Kingston, Jamaica is rocked by the Rodney riots, inspired by the barring of Walter Rodney from the country.
1968 – Yasunari Kawabata becomes the first Japanese person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
1970 – Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act during the October Crisis.
1973 – Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1975 – Indonesian troops kill the Balibo Five, a group of Australian journalists, Portuguese Timor.
1975 – Three-year-old Rahima Banu, from Bangladesh, is the last known case of naturally occurring smallpox.
1975 – The Australian Coalition sparks a constitutional crisis when they vote to defer funding for the government’s annual budget.
1978 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first non-Italian pontiff since 1523.
1984 – Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1991 – George Hennard runs amok in Killeen, Texas, killing 23 and wounding 20.
1995 – The Million Man March takes place in Washington, D.C. About 837,000 attended.
1995 – The Skye Bridge in Scotland is opened.
1996 – Eighty-four football fans die and 180 are injured in a massive crush at a match in Guatemala City.
1998 – Former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a murder extradition warrant.
2002 – The Bibliotheca Alexandrina opens in Egypt, commemorating the ancient library of Alexandria.
2013 – Lao Airlines Flight 301 crashes on approach to Pakse International Airport in Laos, killing 49 people.
2017 – Storm Ophelia strikes the U.K. and Ireland causing major damage and power loss.

October 17

1091 – London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London.
1346 – The English capture King David II of Scotland at Neville’s Cross and imprison him for eleven years.
1448 – An Ottoman army defeats a Hungarian army at the Second Battle of Kosovo.
1456 – The University of Greifswald is established as the second oldest university in northern Europe.
1534 – Anti-Catholic posters appear in Paris and other cities supporting Huldrych Zwingli’s position on the Mass.
1558 – Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded.
1604 – Kepler’s Supernova is observed in the constellation of Ophiuchus.
1610 – French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral.
1660 – The Nine regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I of England are hanged, drawn and quartered.
1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to Louis XIV of France for 40,000 pounds.
1771 – Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Mozart at age 15.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: British General Charles, Earl Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.
1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.
1806 – Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I, is assassinated after an oppressive rule.
1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood.
1817 – The tomb of Pharaoh Seti I is discovered.
1827 – Bellini’s third opera, Il pirata, is premiered at Milan.
1860 – First The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open).
1861 – Aborigines kill Nineteen Europeans in the Cullin-la-ringo massacre.
1888 – Thomas Edison files a patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie).
1907 – Marconi begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service.
1912 – Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.
1919 – RCA is incorporated as the Radio Corporation of America.
1931 – Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion.
1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.
1940 – The body of Communist propagandist Willi Münzenberg found in South France, starting a never-resolved mystery.
1941 – World War II: The USS Kearny becomes the first US Navy vessel to be torpedoed by a U-boat.
1943 – The Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed.
1943 – Nazi Holocaust in Poland: Sobibór extermination camp is closed.
1945 – A massive demonstration in Buenos Aires, Argentina, demands Juan Perón’s release.
1956 – The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in Sellafield, England.
1956 – Bobby Fischer defeats Donald Byrne in the chess Game of the Century.
1961 – Directed by their chief Maurice Papon, Paris police massacre scores of Algerian protesters.
1965 – The 1964–65 New York World’s Fair closes after two years and more than 51 million attendees.
1966 – The 23rd Street Fire in New York City kills 12 firefighters.
1969 – The Caravaggio painting Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence is stolen from the Oratory of Saint Lawrence in Palermo.
1970 – FLQ terrorists murder Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte.
1973 – OPEC imposes an oil embargo against countries they deem to have helped Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
1977 – The hijacked Lufthansa Flight 181 lands in Mogadishu. The remaining hostages are later rescued.
1979 – Mother Teresa is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1979 – The Department of Education Organization Act creates the US Department of Education.
1980 – As part of the Holy See–United Kingdom relations a British monarch makes the first state visit to the Vatican.
1989 – The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake shakes the San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Coast, killing Sixty-three.
1989 – The East German Politburo votes to remove Erich Honecker from his role as General Secretary.
1992 – Having gone to the wrong house, Japanese student Yoshihiro Hattori is killed by the homeowner in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1994 – Russian journalist Dmitry Kholodov is assassinated while investigating corruption in the armed forces.
2000 – The Hatfield rail crash leads to the collapse of Railtrack.
2001 – Israeli tourism minister Rehavam Ze’evi becomes the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack.
2003 – Taipei 101, a 101-floor skyscraper in Taipei, becomes the world’s tallest highrise.
2005 – The Colbert Report, an American satirical news television program and talk show hosted by Stephen Colbert, premiered on Comedy Central.
2018 – The recreational use of cannabis is legalized in Canada.
2018 – Kerch Polytechnic College attack in Crimea.
2019 – Drug dealers in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico force the government to back down on an arrest.

October 18

320 – Pappus of Alexandria observes a solar eclipse.
614 – The Edict of Paris is promulgated by Chlothar II, becoming the last Merovingian capitularia.
629 – Dagobert I is crowned King of the Franks.
1009 – Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah demolishes the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
1016 – Cnut the Great completes his conquest of England in the Battle of Assandun.
1081 – Byzantine–Norman wars: The Normans defeat the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Dyrrhachium.
1356 – Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroys the town of Basel, Switzerland.
1540 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto’s forces destroy the fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa.
1561 – In Japan the fourth Battle of Kawanakajima, between the forces of Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen, ends inconclusively.
1565 – Ships belonging to the Matsura clan of Japan fail to capture a Portuguese trading carrack in the Battle of Fukuda Bay, the first recorded naval battle between Japan and the West.
1599 – Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the Army of Andrew Báthory in the Battle of Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanian people.
1748 – The signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine).
1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted.
1797 – The Treaty of Campo Formio between France and Austria, among other provisions, abolishes the Republic of Venice.
1851 – Moby-Dick is first published as The Whale.
1860 – The Second Opium War ends at the Convention of Peking.
1867 – The United States takes possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million.
1898 – Spanish–American War: The Puerto Rican Campaign ends when the last Spanish troops, officials and loyalists withdraw from the island.
1914 – The Catholic Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany.
1918 – First World War: The Czechoslovak declaration of independence is proclaimed in Prague.
1921 – The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is formed as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922 – The British Broadcasting Company (later Corporation) is founded by a consortium, to establish a national broadcasting service.
1929 – The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overrules the Supreme Court of Canada in Edwards v. Canada when it declares that women are considered “Persons” under Canadian law.
1944 – World War II: The state funeral of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel takes place in Ulm, Germany.
1945 – The USSR’s nuclear program receives plans for the United States plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
1945 – A group of the Venezuelan Armed Forces, led by Mario Vargas, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, stages a coup d’état against president Isaías Medina Angarita, who is overthrown by the end of the day.
1945 – Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón marries actress Eva Duarte.
1951 – The Studio for Electronic Music was established at the West German Broadcasting facility in Cologne, making the first modern music studio.
1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.
1963 – Félicette, a black and white female Parisian stray, becomes the first cat launched into space.
1967 – The Soviet probe Venera 4 reaches Venus, and becomes the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet.
1977 – German Autumn: A set of events revolving around the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of a Lufthansa flight by the Red Army Faction comes to an end when Schleyer is murdered and various RAF members allegedly commit suicide.
1979 – The Federal Communications Commission begins allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license.
1991 – The Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopts a declaration of independence from the Soviet Union.
2003 – Bolivian gas conflict: Bolivian President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, is forced to resign and leave Bolivia.
2007 – A suicide attack on a motorcade carrying former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto kills 139 and wounds 450 more. Bhutto herself was uninjured.
2019 – NASA astronauts Jessica Meir and Christina Koch conduct the first all-female spacewalk outside of the International Space Station.
2019 – Protests and civil unrest, in response to an increase in price hikes of the Metro de Santiago, plague the capital city of Santiago. Following a state of emergency declaration, protests and civil unrest still persist.

October 19

202 BC – Second Punic War: At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, leader of the army defending Carthage.
439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1386 – The Universität Heidelberg holds its first lecture, making it the oldest German university.
1453 – Hundred Years’ War: Three months after the Battle of Castillon, England loses its last possessions in southern France.
1466 – The Thirteen Years’ War between Poland and the Teutonic Order ends with the Second Treaty of Thorn.
1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology.
1596 – The Spanish ship San Felipe runs aground on the coast of Japan and its cargo is confiscated by local authorities
1649 – New Ross town in Ireland surrenders to Oliver Cromwell.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: The siege of Yorktown comes to an end.
1789 – John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.
1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to Napoleon at the Battle of Ulm.
1812 – The French invasion of Russia fails when Napoleon begins his retreat from Moscow.
1813 – War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoleon is forced to retreat from Germany after the Battle of Leipzig.
1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Cedar Creek ends the last Confederate threat to Washington, DC.
1864 – American Civil War: Confederate agents based in Canada rob three banks in Saint Albans, Vermont.
1866 – In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, Austria cedes Veneto and Mantua to France, which immediately awards them to Italy in exchange for the earlier Italian acquiescence to the French annexation of Savoy and Nice.
1900 – Max Planck discovers Planck’s law of black-body radiation.
1912 – Italo-Turkish War: Italy takes possession of what is now Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
1914 – First World War: The First Battle of Ypres begins.
1921 – The Portuguese Prime Minister and several officials are murdered in the Bloody Night coup.
1922 – British Conservative MPs vote to terminate the coalition government with the Liberal Party.
1933 – Konstantin von Neurath withdraws Germany from the League of Nations.
1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
1943 – The cargo vessel Sinfra is attacked by Allied aircraft at Crete and sunk. 2,098 Italian prisoners of war drown with it.
1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1944 – United States forces land in the Philippines.
1944 – A coup is launched against Juan Federico Ponce Vaides, beginning the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution.
1950 – China defeats the Tibetan Army at Chambo.
1950 – Korean War: The Battle of Pyongyang ends in a United Nations victory. Hours later, the Chinese Army begins crossing the border into Korea.
1950 – Iran becomes the first country to accept technical assistance from the United States under the Point Four Program.
1956 – The Soviet Union and Japan sign a Joint Declaration, officially ending the state of war between the two countries that had existed since August 1945.
1960 – The United States imposes a near-total trade embargo against Cuba.
1973 – President Nixon rejects an Appeals Court decision that he turn over the Watergate tapes.
1974 – Niue becomes a self-governing colony of New Zealand.
1984 – A Roman Catholic priest, Jerzy Popiełuszko, associated with the Solidarity Union, is killed by three agents of the Polish Communist internal intelligence agency.
1986 – The president of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, along with 33 others, die when their aircraft crashes into the Lebombo Mountains.
1987 – The United States Navy conducts Operation Nimble Archer, an attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – Black Monday: The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points.
1988 – The British government imposes a broadcasting ban on television and radio interviews with members of Sinn Féin and eleven Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups.
1989 – The convictions of the Guildford Four are quashed by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, after they had spent 15 years in prison.
2001 – SIEV X, an Indonesian fishing boat en route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 migrants, sinks in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
2012 – A bomb explosion kills eight people and injures 110 more in Lebanon.
2013 – At least 105 people are injured in a train crash in Buenos Aires.

October 20-24

October 20

1548 – The city of La Paz is founded by Alonso de Mendoza.
1568 – The Spanish Duke of Alba defeats a Dutch rebel force under William the Silent.
1572 – Eighty Years’ War: Three thousand Spanish soldiers wade through fifteen miles of water in one night to effect the relief of Goes.
1720 – Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.
1740 – France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction, and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.
1781 – The Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Austria.
1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
1827 – In the Battle of Navarino, a combined Turkish and Egyptian fleet is defeated by British, French and Russian naval forces in the last significant battle fought with wooden sailing ships.
1883 – Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru’s involvement in the War of the Pacific.
1904 – Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.
1910 – The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast.
1935 – The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.
1941 – World War II: Thousands of civilians in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade.
1944 – Liquefied natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland and then explodes, leveling 30 blocks and killing 130 people.
1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands.
1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
1951 – The “Johnny Bright incident” occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma.
1952 – The Governor of Kenya declares a state of emergency and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising.
1961 – The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.
1962 – China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.
1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
1973 – “Saturday Night Massacre”: United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
1973 – The Sydney Opera House is opened by Elizabeth II after 14 years of construction.
1976 – The ferry George Prince is struck by a ship while crossing the Mississippi River. Seventy-eight passengers and crew die, and only 18 people aboard the ferry survive.
1977 – Rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd’s airplane crashes. Lead singer Ronnie Van Zant and guitarist Steve Gaines perish in the crash.
1981 – Two police officers and an armored car guard are killed during an armed robbery carried out by members of the Black Liberation Army and Weather Underground.
1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.
1991 – A 6.8 Mw earthquake strikes the Uttarkashi region of India, killing more than 1,000 people.
2011 – Libyan Civil War: Rebel forces capture Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown of Sirte and kill him shortly thereafter.

October 21

1096 – A Seljuk Turkish army successfully fight off the People’s Crusade.
1097 – Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.
1209 – Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1392 – Japanese Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu.
1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as the Strait of Magellan.
1520 – João Álvares Fagundes discovers the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, bestowing them their original name of “Islands of the 11,000 Virgins”.
1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara and becomes shōgun of Japan.
1774 – The flag of Taunton, Massachusetts is the first to include the word “Liberty”.
1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: A British fleet led by Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve in the Battle of Trafalgar.
1824 – Portland cement is patented.
1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.
1861 – American Civil War: Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war.
1867 – The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate to a reservation in western Oklahoma.
1879 – Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his design for an incandescent light bulb.
1888 – Foundation of the Swiss Social Democratic Party.
1892 – Opening ceremonies for the World’s Columbian Exposition are held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893.
1895 – The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade.
1910 – HMS Niobe arrives in Halifax Harbour to become the first ship of the Royal Canadian Navy.
1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting U.S. President against lynching in the deep South.
1931 – A secret society in the Imperial Japanese Army launches an abortive coup d’état attempt.
1940 – The first edition of the Ernest Hemingway novel For Whom the Bell Tolls is published.
1943 – World War II: The Provisional Government of Free India is formally established in Japanese-occupied Singapore.
1944 – World War II: The first kamikaze attack damages HMAS Australia as the Battle of Leyte Gulf begins.
1944 – World War II: The Nemmersdorf massacre against the German civilians takes place.
1944 – World War II: The city of Aachen falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, making it the first German city to fall to the Allies.
1945 – French women vote for the first time during the 1945 French legislative election.
1950 – Korean War: Heavy fighting begins between British and Australian forces against the North Koreans during the Battle of Yongju.
1956 – The Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya is defeated.
1959 – In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opens to the public.
1959 – President Eisenhower approves the transfer of all US Army space-related activities to NASA, including most of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.
1965 – Comet Ikeya–Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers (279,617 miles) from the sun.
1966 – A colliery spoil tip collapses on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
1967 – The National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam organizes a march of fifty thousand people from the Lincoln Memorial to the Pentagon.
1969 – The 1969 Somali coup d’état establishes a Marxist–Leninist administration.
1971 – A gas explosion kills 22 people at a shopping centre near Glasgow, Scotland.
1973 – Fred Dryer of the Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
1978 – Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.
1979 – Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs.
1981 – Andreas Papandreou becomes Prime Minister of Greece, ending an almost 50-year-long system of power dominated by conservative forces.
1983 – The metre is defined as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
1986 – In Lebanon, pro-Iran kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991).
1987 – The Jaffna hospital massacre is carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka, killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, doctors and nurses.
1994 – North Korea and the United States sign an Agreed Framework that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
1994 – In Seoul, South Korea, 32 people are killed when a span of the Seongsu Bridge collapses.
2005 – Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in documenting its discovery.
2019 – Thirty people are killed in a fiery bus crash in western Democratic Republic of the Congo.
2019 – In Canada, the 2019 Canadian Federal Election ends, resulting in incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau remaining in office, albeit in a minority government. 

October 22

451 – The Chalcedonian Creed, regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus, is adopted.
794 – Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto).
906 – Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh leads a raid against the Byzantine Empire, taking 4,000–5,000 captives.
1383 – King Fernando dies without a male heir to the Portuguese throne, sparking a period of civil war and disorder.
1575 – Foundation of Aguascalientes City in New Spain.
1633 – The Ming dynasty defeats the Dutch East India Company.
1707 – Four British naval vessels run aground on the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. In response, the first Longitude Act is enacted in 1714.
1721 – Russian Empire is proclaimed by Tsar Peter I after the Swedish defeat in the Great Northern War.
1730 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed.
1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.
1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.
1797 – André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump, from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris.
1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
1844 – Millerites, followers of Baptist preacher William Miller anticipate the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.
1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.
1866 – A plebiscite ratifies the annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, which had occurred three days before, on October 19.
1875 – First telegraphic connection in Argentina.
1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.
1878 – The Bramall Lane stadium sees the first rugby match played under floodlights.
1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasts 13​1⁄2 hours before burning out).
1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod’s Faust.
1884 – The International Meridian Conference designates the Royal Observatory, Greenwich as the world’s prime meridian.
1895 – In Paris an express train derails after overrunning the buffer stop, crossing almost 30 metres (100 ft) of concourse before crashing through a wall and falling 10 metres (33 ft) to the road below.
1907 – A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will spark the Panic of 1907.
1910 – Hawley Harvey Crippen (the first felon to be arrested with the help of radio) is convicted of poisoning his wife.
1923 – The royalist Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d’état attempt fails in Greece, discrediting the monarchy and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic.
1928 – Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico.
1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, FBI agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.
1941 – World War II: French resistance member Guy Môquet and 29 other hostages are executed by the Germans in retaliation for the death of a German officer.
1943 – World War II: In the Second firestorm raid on Germany, the RAF conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless.
1946 – Operation Osoaviakhim takes place, recruiting of thousands of military-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post–World War II Germany for employment in the Soviet Union.
1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India.
1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval “quarantine” of the Communist nation.
1963 – A BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes in UK with the loss of all on board.
1964 – Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but turns down the honor.
1964 – An all-party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which will become the new official flag of Canada.
1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A’ Go-Go).
1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 12.
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
1975 – The Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus.
1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs.
1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) for its strike the previous August.
1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons.
1999 – Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity.
2001 – Grand Theft Auto III is released, popularizing a genre of open-world, action-adventure video games, as well as spurring controversy around violence in video games.
2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
2005 – Bellview Airlines Flight 210 crashes in Nigeria, killing all 117 people on board.
2006 – A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum.
2007 – A raid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base is carried out by 21 Tamil Tiger commandos. All except one die in this attack. Eight Sri Lanka Air Force planes are destroyed and 10 damaged.
2008 – India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.
2013 – The Australian Capital Territory becomes the first Australian jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage with the Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013.
2014 – Michael Zehaf-Bibeau attacks the Parliament of Canada, killing a soldier and injuring three other people.
2019 – Same-sex marriage is legalised, and abortion is decriminalised in Northern Ireland as a result of the Northern Ireland Assembly not being restored.

October 23

42 BC – Liberators’ civil war: Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.
425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of six.
501 – The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic, absolves Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
1086 – Spanish Reconquista: At the Battle of Sagrajas, the Almoravids defeats the Castilians, but are unable to take advantage of their victory.
1157 – The Battle of Grathe Heath ends a civil war in Denmark.
1295 – The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris.
1641 – Irish Catholic gentry from Ulster attempt to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, so as to force concessions.
1642 – The Battle of Edgehill is the first major battle of the English Civil War.
1707 – The First Parliament of Great Britain convenes.
1739 – The War of Jenkins’ Ear begins when Prime Minister Walpole reluctantly declares war on Spain.
1812 – A French general begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia.
1850 – The first National Women’s Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts.
1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Westport is the last significant engagement west of the Mississippi River.
1906 – Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe.
1911 – The Italo-Turkish War sees the first use of an airplane in combat when an Italian pilot makes a reconnaissance flight.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
1939 – The Japanese Mitsubishi G4M twin-engine “Betty” Bomber makes its maiden flight.
1942 – World War II: Allied forces commence the Second Battle of El Alamein, which proves to be the key turning point in the North African campaign.
1942 – All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard American Airlines Flight 28 are killed when it collides with a USAAF bomber near Palm Springs, California.
1942 – World War II: The Battle for Henderson Field begins on Guadalcanal.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins.
1955 – Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm defeats former emperor Bảo Đại in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam.
1955 – The people of the Saar region vote in a referendum to unite with Germany instead of France.
1956 – Secret police shoot several anti-communist protesters, igniting the Hungarian Revolution.
1958 – Canada’s Springhill mining disaster kills seventy-five miners, while ninety-nine others are rescued.
1965 – Vietnam War: The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launches an operation seeking to destroy Communist forces during the siege of Plei Me.
1970 – Gary Gabelich sets a land speed record in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas.
1972 – Vietnam War: Operation Linebacker, a US bombing campaign against North Vietnam in response to its Easter Offensive, ends after five months.
1973 – Watergate scandal: President Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations.
1982 – A gunfight breaks out between police officers and members of a religious cult in Arizona. The shootout leaves two cultists dead and dozens of cultists and police officers injured.
1983 – Lebanese Civil War: The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. military personnel. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops.
1989 – The Hungarian Republic officially replaces the communist Hungarian People’s Republic.
1989 – Bankruptcy of Wärtsilä Marine; the biggest bankruptcy in the Nordic countries up until then.
1991 – Signing of the Paris Peace Accords which ends the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
1993 – The Troubles: A Provisional IRA bomb prematurely detonates in Belfast, killing the bomber and nine civilians.
1995 – Yolanda Saldívar is found guilty of first-degree murder in the shooting death of popular Latin singer Selena.
1998 – Israel and the Palestinian Authority sign the Wye River Memorandum.
2002 – Chechen terrorists seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage.
2004 – A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.
2007 – A storm causes the Mexican Kab 101 oil platform to collide with a wellhead, leading to the death and drowning of 22 people during rescue operations after evacuation of the platform.
2011 – A powerful 7.2 magnitude earthquake strikes Van Province, Turkey, killing 582 people and injuring thousands.
2011 – The Libyan National Transition Council deems the Libyan Civil War over.
2012 – After 38 years, the world’s first teletext service (BBC’s Ceefax) ceases broadcast due to Northern Ireland completing the digital switchover.
2015 – The lowest sea-level pressure in the Western Hemisphere, and the highest reliably-measured non-tornadic sustained winds, are recorded in Hurricane Patricia, which strikes Mexico hours later, killing at least 13 and causing over $280 million in damages.

October 24

AD 69 – In the Second Battle of Bedriacum, troops loyal to Vespasian defeat those of Emperor Vitellius.
1260 – Chartres Cathedral is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France.
1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.
1590 – John White, the governor of the second Roanoke Colony, returns to England after an unsuccessful search for the “lost” colonists.
1641 – Felim O’Neill of Kinard, the leader of the Irish Rebellion, issues his Proclamation of Dungannon, justifying the uprising and declaring continued loyalty to Charles I.
1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years’ War.
1795 – Poland is completely consumed by Russia, Prussia and Austria.
1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.
1851 – William Lassell discovers the moons Umbriel and Ariel orbiting Uranus.
1857 – Sheffield F.C., the world’s oldest association football club still in operation, is founded in England.
1861 – The first transcontinental telegraph line across the United States is completed.
1871 – An estimated 17 to 20 Chinese immigrants are lynched in Los Angeles, California.
1889 – Henry Parkes delivers the Tenterfield Oration, effectively starting the federation process in Australia.
1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.
1902 – Guatemala’s Santa María Volcano begins to erupt, becoming the third-largest eruption of the 20th century.
1911 – Orville Wright remains in the air nine minutes and 45 seconds in a glider at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kirk Kilisse concludes with a Bulgarian victory against the Ottoman Empire.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo concludes with the Serbian victory against the Ottoman Empire.
1917 – First World War: Italy suffers a disastrous defeat on the Austro-Italian front.
1926 – Harry Houdini’s last performance takes place at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit.
1929 – “Black Thursday” on the New York Stock Exchange.
1930 – A bloodless coup d’état in Brazil ends the First Republic, replacing it with the Vargas Era.
1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic over the Hudson River.
1944 – World War II: Japan’s center force is temporarily repulsed in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
1945 – The United Nations Charter comes into effect.
1946 – A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket takes the first photograph of earth from outer space.
1947 – Famed animator Walt Disney testifies before the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists.
1949 – The cornerstone of the United Nations Headquarters is laid.
1954 – President Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam.
1956 – At the request of the Stalinist regime of Ernő Gerő, a massive Soviet force invades Budapest during the Hungarian Revolution. Imre Nagy is reinstalled as Prime Minister.
1957 – The United States Air Force starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar manned space program.
1960 – A ballistic missile explodes on the launch pad in the Soviet Union, killing over 100 people.
1963 – An oxygen leak from an R-9 Desna missile at the Baikonur Cosmodrome triggers a fire that kills seven people.
1964 – Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom and becomes Zambia.
1975 – In Iceland, 90% of women take part in a national strike, refusing to work in protest of gender inequality.
1980 – The government of Poland legalizes the Solidarity trade union.
1986 – Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed down by a British court, for the attempted bombing of an El Al flight at Heathrow Airport.
1990 – Italian prime minister Giulio Andreotti reveals to the Italian parliament the existence of Gladio, the Italian NATO force formed in 1956, intended to be activated in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion.
1992 – The Toronto Blue Jays become the first Major League Baseball team based outside the United States to win the World Series.
1998 – Deep Space 1 is launched to explore the asteroid belt and test new spacecraft technologies.
2002 – Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, D.C.
2003 – Concorde makes its last commercial flight.
2004 – Arsenal Football Club loses to Manchester United, ending a row of unbeaten matches at 49 matches, which is the record in the Premier League.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma makes landfall in Florida, resulting in 35 direct and 26 indirect fatalities and causing $20.6B USD in damage.
2007 – Chang’e 1, the first satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, is launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center.
2008 – “Bloody Friday” saw many of the world’s stock exchanges experience the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices.
2014 – The China National Space Administration launches an experimental lunar mission, Chang’e 5-T1, which will loop behind the Moon and return to Earth.
2015 – A driver crashes into the Oklahoma State Homecoming parade, killing four people and injuring 34.
2016 – A French surveillance aircraft flying to Libya crashes on takeoff in Malta, killing all five people on board.

October 25-29

October 25

285 (or 286) – Execution of Saints Crispin and Crispinian during the reign of Diocletian, now the patron saints of leather workers, curriers, and shoemakers.
473 – Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the East Roman Empire.
1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
1147 – Reconquista: After a siege of four months, crusader knights reconquer Lisbon.
1415 – Hundred Years’ War: Henry V of England, with his lightly armoured infantry and archers, defeats the heavily armoured French cavalry in the Battle of Agincourt.
1616 – Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast.
1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre.
1812 – War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian.
1822 – Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins.
1854 – The Battle of Balaclava takes place during the Crimean War. It is soon memorialized in verse as The Charge of the Light Brigade.
1861 – The Toronto Stock Exchange is created.
1900 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
1917 – Old Style date of the October Revolution in Russia.
1920 – After 74 days on hunger strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney dies.
1924 – The Zinoviev letter, which Zinoviev himself denied writing, is published in the Daily Mail; the Labour party would later blame this letter for the Conservatives’ landslide election win four days later.
1927 – The Italian luxury liner SS Principessa Mafalda sinks off the coast of Brazil, killing 314.
1940 – Benjamin O. Davis Sr. is named the first African American general in the United States Army.
1944 – Second World War: Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
1944 – Second World War: The USS Tang under Richard O’Kane (the top American submarine ace of the war) is sunk by the ship’s own malfunctioning torpedo.
1944 – Second World War: The final attempt of the Imperial Japanese Navy to win the war climaxes at the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
1945 – Fifty years of Japanese administration of Taiwan formally ends when the Republic of China assumes control.
1949 – The Battle of Guningtou in the Taiwan Strait begins.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows the United Nations Security Council reconnaissance photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba.
1971 – The People’s Republic of China replaces the Republic of China at the United Nations.
1973 – Egypt and Israel accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 339.
1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude.
1983 – The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d’état.
1995 – A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
1997 – After a civil war, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself President of the Republic of the Congo.
2009 – The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kill 155 and wounds at least 721.

October 26

1185 – The Uprising of Asen and Peter begins on the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki and ends with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
1341 – The Byzantine civil war of 1341–47 formally begins with the proclamation of John VI Kantakouzenos as Byzantine Emperor.
1377 – Tvrtko I is crowned the first king of Bosnia.
1520 – Charles V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.
1597 – Imjin War: Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin routs the Japanese Navy of 300 ships with only 13 ships at the Battle of Myeongnyang.
1640 – The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Covenanter Scotland and King Charles.
1689 – General Piccolomini of Austria burns down Skopje to prevent the spread of cholera; he died of the disease himself soon after.
1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia.
1813 – War of 1812: A combined force of British regulars, Canadian militia, and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of the Chateauguay.
1825 – The Erie Canal opens, allowing direct passage from the Hudson River to Lake Erie.
1859 – The Royal Charter is wrecked on the coast of Anglesey with 459 dead.
1860 – The Expedition of the Thousand ends when Giuseppe Garibaldi presents his conquests to King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.
1863 – The Football Association is founded.
1892 – Ida B. Wells publishes Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases.
1905 – King Oscar II recognizes the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
1909 – An Jung-geun assassinates Japan’s Resident-General of Korea.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Ottomans lose the cities of Thessaloniki and Skopje.
1917 – First World War: Brazil declares war on the Central Powers.
1918 – Erich Ludendorff, quartermaster-general of the Imperial German Army, is dismissed by Kaiser Wilhelm II for refusing to cooperate in peace negotiations.
1921 – The Chicago Theatre opens.
1936 – The first electric generator at Hoover Dam goes into full operation.
1942 – World War II: In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands during the Guadalcanal Campaign, one U.S. aircraft carrier is sunk and another carrier is heavily damaged, while two Japanese carriers and one cruiser are heavily damaged.
1943 – World War II: First flight of the Dornier Do 335 “Pfeil”.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf ends with an overwhelming American victory.
1947 – Kashmir conflict: The Maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu signs the Instrument of Accession with India.
1955 – After the last Allied troops have left the country, and following the provisions of the Austrian Independence Treaty, Austria declares that it will never join a military alliance.
1955 – Ngô Đình Diệm declares himself Premier of South Vietnam.
1956 – Hungarian Revolution: In the towns of Mosonmagyaróvár and Esztergom, Hungarian secret police forces massacre civilians. As rebel strongholds in Budapest hold, fighting spreads throughout the country.
1958 – Pan American Airways makes the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York City to Paris.
1967 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi crowns himself Emperor of Iran.
1968 – Soviet cosmonaut Georgy Beregovoy pilots Soyuz 3 into space for a four-day mission.
1970 – Muhammad Ali boxes for the first time after Ali’s three-year hiatus due to draft evasion.
1977 – Ali Maow Maalin, the last natural case of smallpox, develops a rash in Somalia. The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consider this date to be the anniversary of the eradication of smallpox, the most spectacular success of vaccination.
1979 – Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea, is assassinated by Korean CIA head Kim Jae-gyu.
1980 – The Peter Muhlenberg Memorial in Washington, D.C. is dedicated.
1985 – The Australian government returns ownership of Uluru to the local Pitjantjatjara Aboriginals.
1989 – China Airlines Flight 204 crashes after take off from Hualien Airport in Taiwan, killing all 54 people on board.
1991 – Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People’s Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.
1994 – Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
1995 – Mossad agents assassinate Islamic Jihad leader Fathi Shaqaqi in his hotel in Malta.
1995 – An avalanche hits the Icelandic village Flateyri, destroying 29 homes and burying 45 people, 20 of whom died.
1999 – Britain’s House of Lords votes to end the right of hereditary peers to vote in Britain’s upper chamber of Parliament.
2000 – A wave of protests forces Robert Guéï to step down as president after the Ivorian presidential election.
2000 – The Sony PlayStation 2 is launched in North American markets with 27 launch titles.
2001 – The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law.
2002 – Approximately 50 Chechen terrorists and 150 hostages die when Russian special forces troops storm a theater building in Moscow, which had been occupied by the terrorists during a musical performance three days before.
2003 – The Cedar Fire, the third-largest fire in California history, kills 15 people, consumes 250,000 acres (1,000 km2), and destroys 2,200 homes around San Diego.
2015 – A 7.5 magnitude earthquake strikes in the Hindu Kush mountain range in northeastern Afghanistan, killing 398 people and leaving 2,536 people injured.
2016 – An earthquake of magnitude 6.6 strikes central Italy.

October 27

312 – Constantine is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross.
939 – Æthelstan, the first king of all England, dies and is succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I.
1275 – Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam.
1524 – French troops lay siege to Pavia.
1553 – Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.
1644 – Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War.
1682 – Philadelphia is founded in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
1775 – King George III expands on his Proclamation of Rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies in his speech from the throne at the opening of Parliament.
1795 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S.
1806 – The French Army enters Berlin, following the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt.
1810 – United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida.
1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be killed.
1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Marshal Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at the conclusion of the Siege of Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers.
1904 – The first underground New York City Subway line opens, later designated as the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line.
1907 – Fifteen people are killed in Hungary when a gunman opens fire on a crowd gathered at a church consecration.
1914 – First World War: The new British battleship HMS Audacious is sunk by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin.
1916 – Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasu V, is defeated by Fitawrari abte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zewditu I.
1922 – A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country’s annexation to the South African Union.
1924 – The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.
1930 – Ratifications exchanged in London for the first London Naval Treaty go into effect immediately, further limiting the expensive naval arms race among its five signatories.
1936 – Mrs Wallis Simpson obtains her divorce, which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
1944 – World War II: German forces capture Banská Bystrica during Slovak National Uprising thus bringing it to an end.
1954 – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
1958 – Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed by General Ayub Khan, who had been appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier.
1961 – NASA tests the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
1962 – Major Rudolf Anderson of the United States Air Force becomes the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane is shot down over Cuba by a Soviet-supplied surface-to-air missile.
1962 – By refusing to agree to the firing of a nuclear torpedo at a US warship, Vasily Arkhipov averts nuclear war.
1962 – An aircraft carrying Enrico Mattei, post-war Italian administrator, crashes in mysterious circumstances.
1964 – Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of the Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launches his political career and comes to be known as “A Time for Choosing”.
1967 – Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and others of the ‘Baltimore Four’ protest the Vietnam War by pouring blood on Selective Service records.
1971 – The Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire.
1979 – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
1981 – Cold War: The Soviet submarine S-363 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden.
1986 – The British government suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as the Big Bang.
1988 – Cold War: Ronald Reagan suspends construction of the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow due to Soviet listening devices in the building structure.
1991 – Turkmenistan achieves independence from the Soviet Union.
1992 – United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is murdered by shipmate Terry M. Helvey for being gay, precipitating debate about gays in the military that results in the United States’ “Don’t ask, don’t tell” military policy.
1994 – Gliese 229B is the first Substellar Mass Object to be unquestionably identified.
1995 – Former Prime Minister of Italy Bettino Craxi is convicted in absentia of corruption.
1997 – The 1997 Asian financial crisis causes a crash in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
1999 – Gunmen open fire in the Armenian Parliament, killing the Prime Minister and seven others.
2004 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years.
2014 – Britain withdraws from Afghanistan at the end of Operation Herrick, after 12 years four months and seven days.
2017 – Catalonia declares independence from Spain.
2018 – A gunman opens fire on a Pittsburgh synagogue killing 11 and injuring 6, including 4 police officers.
2019 – Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant founder and leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi kills himself and three children by detonating a suicide vest during the U.S. military Barisha raid in northwestern Syria.

October 28

AD 97 – Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor.
306 – Maxentius is proclaimed Roman emperor.
312 – Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman emperor in the West.
969 – The Byzantine Empire recovers Antioch from Arab rule.
1344 – The lower town of Smyrna is captured by Crusaders in response to Aydınid piracy.
1420 – Beijing is officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty when the Forbidden City is completed.
1449 – Christian I is crowned king of Denmark.
1453 – Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned king of Bohemia in Prague.
1492 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba on his first voyage to the New World.
1516 – Ottoman–Mamluk War: Mamluks fail to stop the Ottoman advance towards Egypt at the Battle of Yaunis Khan.
1531 – Abyssinian–Adal war: The Adal Sultanate seizes southern Ethiopia.
1538 – The Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino is founded in what is now the Dominican Republic.
1628 – French Wars of Religion: The Siege of La Rochelle ends with the surrender of the Huguenots after fourteen months.
1636 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony votes to establish a theological college, which would later become Harvard University.
1664 – The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
1707 – The 1707 Hōei earthquake causes more than 5,000 deaths in Japan.
1726 – The novel Gulliver’s Travels is published.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: British troops attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Continental Army.
1834 – The Pinjarra massacre occurs in the Swan River Colony. An estimated 30 Noongar people are killed by British colonists.
1835 – The United Tribes of New Zealand are established with the signature of the Declaration of Independence.
1864 – American Civil War: A Union attack on the Confederate capital is repulsed.
1886 – President Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
1891 – The Mino–Owari earthquake is the largest inland earthquake in Japan’s history.
1893 – Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathétique receives its première performance only nine days before the composer’s death.
1918 – First World War: A new Polish government in western Galicia is established, triggering the Polish–Ukrainian War.
1919 – The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Wilson’s veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
1922 – Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.
1928 – The “Indonesia Raya”, now the national anthem, is first sung.
1940 – Second World War: Greece rejects Italy’s ultimatum. Italy invades Greece through Albania a few hours later.
1942 – The Alaska Highway first connects Alaska to the North American railway network at Dawson Creek in Canada.
1948 – Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1949 – An Air France Lockheed Constellation crashes in the Azores, killing all 48 people on board.
1956 – Hungarian Revolution: A de facto ceasefire comes into effect between armed revolutionaries and Soviet troops, who begin to withdraw from Budapest. Communist officials and facilities come under attack by revolutionaries.
1956 – Elvis Presley receives a polio vaccination on national TV.
1958 – John XXIII is elected Pope.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba.
1965 – Pope Paul VI promulgates Nostra aetate, by which the Church officially recognizes the legitimacy of non-Christian faiths.
1971 – Prospero becomes the only British satellite to be launched by a British rocket.
1982 – The Spanish general election begins fourteen years of rule by the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party.
1990 – Georgia holds its only free election under Soviet rule.
1995 – The Baku Metro fire sees 289 people killed and 270 injured.
2005 – I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby is indicted due to his involvement in the Plame affair.
2006 – A funeral service takes place at the Bykivnia graves for those Ukrainians who were killed by the Soviet secret police.
2007 – Cristina Fernández de Kirchner becomes the first woman elected President of Argentina.
2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.
2009 – NASA successfully launches the Ares I-X mission, the only rocket launch for its short-lived Constellation program.
2013 – Five people are killed and 38 are injured after a car crashes into barriers at the Tiananmen Square in China.
2014 – A rocket carrying NASA’s Cygnus CRS Orb-3 resupply mission to the International Space Station explodes seconds after taking off from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in Virginia.

October 29

539 BC – Cyrus the Great (founder of Persian Empire) entered the capital of Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land.
312 – Constantine the Great enters Rome after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, stages a grand adventus in the city, and is met with popular jubilation. Maxentius’ body is fished out of the Tiber and beheaded.
437 – Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius.
969 – Byzantine troops occupy Antioch, Syria.
1268 – Conradin is executed along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden by Charles I of Sicily.
1390 – First trial for witchcraft in Paris leading to the death of three people.
1467 – Battle of Brustem: Charles the Bold defeats Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
1591 – Pope Innocent IX is elected.
1611 – Russian homage to the King of Poland, Sigismund III Vasa.
1618 – English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.
1658 – Second Northern War: Naval forces of the Dutch Republic defeat the Swedes in the Battle of the Sound.
1665 – Portuguese forces defeat the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitate King António I of Kongo, also known as Nvita a Nkanga.
1675 – Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.
1787 – Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni receives its first performance in Prague.
1792 – Mount Hood (Oregon) is named after Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who sighted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.
1863 – Eighteen countries meet in Geneva and agree to form the International Red Cross.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie: Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant repel a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1888 – The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.
1901 – In Amherst, Massachusetts, nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
1901 – Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
1914 – Ottoman entry into World War I.
1918 – The German High Seas Fleet is incapacitated when sailors mutiny on the night of the 29th-30th, an action which would trigger the German Revolution of 1918–19.
1921 – The Link River Dam, a part of the Klamath Reclamation Project, is completed.
1921 – United States: Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in Boston, Massachusetts.
1921 – The Harvard University football team loses to Centre College, ending a 25-game winning streak. This is considered one of the biggest upsets in college football.
1922 – King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy appoints Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister.
1923 – Turkey becomes a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
1929 – The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of ’29 or “Black Tuesday”, ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.
1941 – The Holocaust: In the Kaunas Ghetto, over 10,000 Jews are shot by German occupiers at the Ninth Fort, a massacre known as the “Great Action”.
1942 – The Holocaust: In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews.
1944 – The Dutch city of Breda is liberated by 1st Polish Armoured Division.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.
1948 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Safsaf massacre: Israeli soldiers capture the Palestinian village of Safsaf in the Galilee; after, between 52 and 64 villagers are massacred by the IDF.
1953 – BCPA Flight 304 DC-6 crashes near San Francisco.
1955 – The Soviet battleship Novorossiysk strikes a World War II mine in the harbor at Sevastopol.
1956 – Suez Crisis begins: Israeli forces invade the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.
1957 – Israel’s prime minister David Ben-Gurion and five of his ministers are injured when Moshe Dwek throws a grenade into Israel’s Knesset.
1960 – In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.
1960 – An airplane carrying the Cal Poly football team crashes on takeoff in Toledo, Ohio.
1961 – Syria exits from the United Arab Republic.
1964 – The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar is renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.
1964 – A collection of irreplaceable gems, including the 565 carat (113 g) Star of India, is stolen by a group of thieves (among them is “Murph the surf”) from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
1967 – Montreal’s World Fair, Expo 67, closes with over 50 million visitors.
1969 – The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet.
1971 – In Macon, Georgia, guitarist Duane Allman is killed in a motorcycle accident.
1972 – The three surviving perpetrators of the Munich massacre are released from prison in exchange for the hostages of hijacked Lufthansa Flight 615.
1980 – Demonstration flight of a secretly modified C-130 for an Iran hostage crisis rescue attempt ends in crash landing at Eglin Air Force Base’s Duke Field, Florida leading to cancellation of Operation Credible Sport.
1985 – Major General Samuel K. Doe is announced the winner of the first multi-party election in Liberia.
1986 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher opens the last stretch of the M25 motorway.
1991 – The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1994 – Francisco Martin Duran fires over two dozen shots at the White House; he is later convicted of trying to kill US President Bill Clinton.
1998 – In South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presents its report, which condemns both sides for committing atrocities.
1998 – Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off on STS-95 with 77-year-old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space.
1998 – ATSC HDTV broadcasting in the United States is inaugurated with the launch of the STS-95 space shuttle mission.
1998 – While en route from Adana to Ankara, a Turkish Airlines flight with a crew of six and 33 passengers is hijacked by a Kurdish militant who orders the pilot to fly to Switzerland. The plane instead lands in Ankara after the pilot tricked the hijacker into thinking that he is landing in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia to refuel.
1998 – Hurricane Mitch, the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history, makes landfall in Honduras.
1998 – The Gothenburg discothèque fire in Sweden kills 63 and injures 200.
1999 – A large cyclone devastates Odisha, India.
2002 – Ho Chi Minh City ITC fire, a fire destroys a luxurious department store where 1500 people are shopping. Over 60 people die and over 100 are unaccounted for. It is the deadliest disaster in Vietnam during peacetime.
2004 – The Arabic-language news network Al Jazeera broadcasts an excerpt from a 2004 Osama bin Laden video in which the terrorist leader first admits direct responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks and references the 2004 U.S. presidential election.
2005 – Bombings in Delhi, India kill more than 60.
2008 – Delta Air Lines merges with Northwest Airlines, creating the world’s largest airline and reducing the number of US legacy carriers to five.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy hits the east coast of the United States, killing 148 directly and 138 indirectly, while leaving nearly $70 billion in damages and causing major power outages.
2015 – China announces the end of One-child policy after 35 years.
2018 – Lion Air Flight 610 of a Boeing 737 MAX crashes after taking off from Jakarta, Indonesia killing 189 people on board.

October 30-31

October 30

637 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Antioch surrenders to the Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge.
758 – Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.
1137 – Ranulf of Apulia defeats Roger II of Sicily at the Battle of Rignano, securing his position as duke until his death two years later.
1270 – The Eighth Crusade ends by an agreement between Charles I of Anjou (replacing his deceased brother King Louis IX of France) and the Hafsid dynasty of Tunis, Tunisia.
1340 – Reconquista: Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Muslim invasion at the Battle of Río Salado.
1485 – King Henry VII of England is crowned, beginning the Tudor reign.
1657 – Anglo-Spanish War: Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios.
1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Convinced that he is facing a much larger force, Prussian General von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrenders the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers.
1817 – Simón Bolívar becomes President of the Third Republic of Venezuela.
1831 – Nat Turner is arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.
1863 – Danish Prince Vilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.
1864 – The Treaty of Vienna is signed, by which Denmark relinquishes one province each to Prussia and Austria.
1888 – The Rudd Concession is granted by Matabeleland to agents of Cecil Rhodes.
1905 – Czar Nicholas II issues the October Manifesto, granting the Russian peoples basic civil liberties and the right to form a duma. (October 17 in the Julian calendar)
1918 – World War I: The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.
1918 – World War I: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, a state union of Kingdom of Hungary and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia is abolished with decisions of Croatian and Hungarian parliaments
1920 – The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.
1925 – John Logie Baird creates Britain’s first television transmitter.
1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.
1941 – President Roosevelt approves $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1941 – Holocaust: Fifteen hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.
1942 – World War II: Lt. Tony Fasson and Able Seaman Colin Grazier drown while taking code books from the sinking German submarine U-559.
1944 – Holocaust: Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of WWII.
1945 – Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking the baseball color line.
1947 – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the foundation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), is founded.
1953 – President Eisenhower approves the top-secret document NSC 162/2 concerning the maintenance of a strong nuclear deterrent force against the Soviet Union.
1956 – Hungarian Revolution: The government recognizes the new workers’ councils. Army officer Béla Király leads an attack on the Communist Party headquarters.
1959 – Piedmont Airlines Flight 349 crashes on approach to Charlottesville–Albemarle Airport in Albemarle County, Virginia, killing 26 of the 27 on board.
1961 – The Soviet Union detonates the Tsar Bomba, the most powerful explosive device ever detonated.
1961 – Due to “violations of Vladimir Lenin’s precepts”, it is decreed that Joseph Stalin’s body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin’s tomb and buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker.
1973 – The Bosphorus Bridge in Turkey is completed, connecting the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus for the second time.
1974 – The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman takes place in Zaire.
1975 – Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain becomes acting head of state, taking over for the country’s ailing dictator, Gen. Francisco Franco.
1980 – El Salvador and Honduras agree to put the border dispute fought over in 1969’s Football War before the International Court of Justice.
1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina, after seven years of military rule, are held.
1985 – Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for mission STS-61-A, its final successful mission.
1993 – The Troubles: Loyalists carry out a mass shooting at a Halloween party in Greysteel, Northern Ireland, killing six Catholics and two Protestants.
1991 – The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The Madrid Conference commences in an effort to revive peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine.
1995 – Quebec citizens narrowly vote (50.58% to 49.42%) in favour of remaining a province of Canada in their second referendum on national sovereignty.
2005 – The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (destroyed in the firebombing of Dresden during World War II) is reconsecrated after a thirteen-year rebuilding project.
2014 – Sweden is the first European Union member state to officially recognize the State of Palestine.
2015 – Sixty-four people are killed and more than 147 injuries after a fire in a nightclub in the Romanian capital Bucharest.

October 31

475 – Romulus Augustulus is proclaimed Western Roman Emperor.
683 – During the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba catches fire and is burned down.
802 – Empress Irene is deposed and banished to Lesbos. Conspirators place Nikephoros, the minister of finance, on the Byzantine throne.
932 – Abbasid caliph al-Muqtadir is killed while fighting against the forces of general Mu’nis al-Muzaffar. Al-Muqtadir’s brother al-Qahir is chosen to succeed him.
1517 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1587 – Leiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575.
1614 – First performance of Ben Jonson’s comedy Bartholomew Fair by the Lady Elizabeth’s Men company at the Hope Theatre in London.
1822 – Emperor Agustín de Iturbide attempts to dissolve the Congress of the Mexican Empire.
1863 – The New Zealand Wars resume as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.
1864 – Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state.
1903 – The Purdue Wreck, a railroad train collision in Indianapolis, kills 17 people, including 14 players of the Purdue University football team.
1913 – Dedication of the Lincoln Highway, the first automobile highway across United States.
1913 – The Indianapolis Streetcar Strike and subsequent riot begins.
1917 – World War I: Battle of Beersheba: The “last successful cavalry charge in history”.
1918 – World War I: The Aster Revolution terminates the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and Hungary achieves full sovereignty.
1922 – Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy
1923 – The first of 160 consecutive days of 100° Fahrenheit at Marble Bar, Western Australia.
1924 – World Savings Day is announced in Milan, Italy by the Members of the Association at the 1st International Savings Bank Congress (World Society of Savings Banks).
1926 – Last issue of the independent Italian newspaper Il Mondo, thereafter suppressed by the Mussolini regime
1938 – Great Depression: In an effort to restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a fifteen-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.
1940 – World War II: The Battle of Britain ends: The United Kingdom prevents a possible German invasion.
1941 – After 14 years of work, Mount Rushmore is completed.
1941 – World War II: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 U.S. Navy sailors. It is the first U.S. Navy vessel sunk by enemy action in WWII.
1943 – World War II: An F4U Corsair accomplishes the first successful radar-guided interception by a United States Navy or Marine Corps aircraft.
1956 – Suez Crisis: The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.
1956 – Hungarian Revolution of 1956: A Revolutionary Headquarters is established in Hungary. Following Imre Nagy’s announcement of October 30, banned non-Communist political parties are reformed, and the MDP is replaced by the MSZMP. József Mindszenty is released from prison. The Soviet Politburo makes the decision to crush the Revolution.
1961 – In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin’s body is removed from the Lenin’s Mausoleum, also known as the Lenin Tomb.
1963 – A propane tank explosion at the Indiana State Fair Coliseum (now the Indiana Farmers Coliseum) in Indianapolis kills 74 people and injures another 400 during an ice skating show.
1968 – Vietnam War October surprise: Citing progress with the Paris peace talks, US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces to the nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of “all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam” effective November 1.
1973 – Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape. Three Provisional Irish Republican Army members escape from Mountjoy Prison, Dublin aboard a hijacked helicopter that landed in the exercise yard.
1979 – Western Airlines Flight 2605 crashes on landing in Mexico City, killing 73 people.
1984 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by two Sikh security guards. Riots break out in New Delhi and other cities and around 3,000 Sikhs are killed.
1994 – American Eagle Flight 4184 crashes near Roselawn, Indiana killing all 68 people on board.
1996 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes in São Paulo, Brazil, killing 99 people.
1998 – Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.
1999 – Yachtsman Jesse Martin returns to Melbourne after 11 months of circumnavigating the world, solo, non-stop and unassisted.
1999 – EgyptAir Flight 990 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean near Nantucket, killing all 217 people on board.
2000 – Soyuz TM-31 launches, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The ISS has been crewed continuously since then.
2000 – Singapore Airlines Flight 006 crashes on takeoff from Taipei, killing 83.
2002 – A federal grand jury in Houston, Texas indicts former Enron chief financial officer Andrew Fastow on 78 counts of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy and obstruction of justice related to the collapse of his ex-employer.
2003 – Mahathir bin Mohamad resigns as Prime Minister of Malaysia and is replaced by Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, marking an end to Mahathir’s 22 years in power.
2011 – The global population of humans reaches seven billion. This day is now recognized by the United Nations as the Day of Seven Billion.
2014 – During a test flight, the VSS Enterprise, a Virgin Galactic experimental spaceflight test vehicle, suffers a catastrophic in-flight breakup and crashes in the Mojave Desert, California,
2015 – Metrojet Flight 9268 is bombed over the northern Sinai Peninsula, killing all 224 people on board.
2017 – A truck drives into a crowd in Lower Manhattan, New York City, killing eight people.​

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